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My first programming language in school was C. Then I learnt C++ and Java and got stuck with Java for 2 yrs. I was so addicted to java and OOP at first. I started making Java applications and became fully thorough in OOP.

Now I would like to learn different languages. My mind is full of C style syntax. Sometimes in my dreams, I see camelCase words and paranthesis and braces and dots. Even JavaScript uses C like syntax.

I want to get adapt to different languages so that I won't find difficulty when I get a job that requires me to program in different syntax and different paradigm..

I do not know what functional, logical, hybrid paradigms mean. So I am asking here. Suggest me a different language (and some good book on it if possible) to learn..

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Do not learn languages, they're all irrelevant and unimportant. Learn paradigms and fundamental theories - then you'll be able to easily recognise them in any particular language you bump into. –  SK-logic Sep 14 '11 at 8:00
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@SK-logic: although a judicious choice of languages leads one to naturally learn those paradigms and fundamental theories! –  Frank Shearar Sep 14 '11 at 8:40
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and take some holidays maybe –  Nikko Sep 14 '11 at 10:56
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@SK-logic: Except when you actually have to do some programming. –  Joren Sep 14 '11 at 11:44
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@SK-logic: I agree, but describing languages as irrelevant and unimportant is an exaggeration. –  Joren Sep 14 '11 at 11:54
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16 Answers

up vote 42 down vote accepted

Haskell is a completely different way of programming, if you're not used to it. Here's a good free online reference.

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here is also a good reference tryhaskell.org –  Tokk Sep 14 '11 at 7:35
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The site says, "This guide is meant for people who have programmed already, but have yet to try functional programming" which means this is what I want. Thanks a lot! –  Vigneshwaran Sep 14 '11 at 12:20
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UPDATE @Michael Burge: 2 weeks after following your suggestion, I'm halfway(7/14chaps) through this reference. WOW!! Other than different syntax, this language changed my programming mindset totally. No for-loops, lazy evaluation, and especially passing functions as parameters were all amazing! More to learn.. Came here to thank StackExchange community. –  Vigneshwaran Sep 27 '11 at 14:15
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If you don't mind leaving the crowded road of hype languages, you can try Postscript/PDF with its stack based programming paradigm.

Lisp, Prolog, Occam are other languages with more or less exotic paradigms.

APL is known for its unconventional character set.

All of these have at best a niche value on the market but they provide fresh air to the brain.

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APL might have an unconventional char set, but at the same time, there is no "obfuscated APL" contest because APL naturally comes that way. –  BlackJack Sep 14 '11 at 11:20
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Clojure http://clojure.org/getting_started

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+1 to Clojure. You get all the benefits of a modern language (hashmap and vector literals), with the simplicity of the LISP syntax, and the power of a functional language. Clojure revolutionized the way I think about programming. –  Timothy Baldridge Sep 14 '11 at 13:32
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Inform7 is the most awesome programming language ever. It is only useful for one thing -- writing text-based games -- but what it does, it does very well. Programming in Inform7 is unlike programming in any other language I've ever tried. A typical line of Inform7:

Before wearing something which is not carried by the player: if the noun is worn, 
continue the action; try taking the noun; if the player does not have the noun, 
stop the action.

This implements the logic that if the player tries to wear something that they are not carrying, they logically have to pick it up first. If picking up the object fails, (say, because it can be seen but not touched because the hat is inside the closed aquarium) they don't get to wear the object.

Or:

The initial appearance of a door is usually "Nearby [an item described] leads 
[item described direction]." The description of a door is usually 
"[if open]It stands open[otherwise]It is closed[end if][if locked] 
and locked[otherwise] and unlocked[end if]."

This logic says that when the player sees a door, it is first described as something like "A drawbridge leads north. It stands open."

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There's always Forth, which isn't as high-profile/visible as it once was but is still very common in certain fields. It's certainly not C-like :)

Someone has already mentioned Lisp, but I'm going to suggest that Scheme may be a better choice for a Lisp-like language. It's been the language for lots of Computer Science programming courses for years, so there's a lot of tutorial material around for it.

You may also be interested in, or amused by, some of the (often charmingly-named) Esoteric Programming Languages

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The book of Abelson / Sussman ("Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs") is the best book I know of to learn different programming paradigms. They use Scheme (an easy to learn Lisp dialect) throughout the book, which is definitely not "C-Style" or OOP. See here http://mitpress.mit.edu/sicp/ for more information.

You find this book also on place 3 of this list:

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1711/what-is-the-single-most-influential-book-every-programmer-should-read

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My favorite functional programming language so far is ML. However, I'd only suggest it for purely academic learning about other syntax/functional programming languages; I seriously doubt you'll ever have a job that requires you to use ML.

As for multi-paradigm languages, one that's gaining popularity (but that I've never used personally) is Scala. You should be able to pick it up fairly quickly because it runs on the JVM, so your experience in Java will be a plus.

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There are thousands of F# jobs out there. And some are using OCaml in the enterprise too. –  SK-logic Sep 14 '11 at 8:02
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Knowing some ML helps enormously when reading the FP literature, and ML's been widely pillaged for concepts. –  Frank Shearar Sep 14 '11 at 8:42
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Man, SQL does not have C-like syntax, and is very useful compared to other "exotic" languages (why bother learning pdf language?)

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Python. Python is a modern, practical, multi-paradigm programming language, dynamic and strongly typed. Python has a simple yet powerful syntax, combined with powerful libraries.

Like C++, Python has a powerful metaprogramming capability; but unlike C++, metaprogramming is done in Python, not as separate, cumbersome syntax like templates or macros.

Like Pascal, Python is easy to learn; but unlike Pascal, Python is not just a toy language.

Like Java, Python is strong on OOP; but unlike Java, Python doesn't come with the hefty, unnecessarily verbose syntax.

Like Bash/Perl, Python can be used to write quick scripts; but unlike Bash/Perl, Python can actually scale to larger program.

Python has strong facilities for functional programming (map, filter, reduce, composition, lambda, list comprehension, currying, lazy evaluation, etc), but does not restrict you to functional paradigm. You can freely mix and match paradigm as you see fit to solve a problem. And unlike many dedicated functional language, Python is actually used in the industry.

Best of all:

>>> from __future__ import braces
  File "<stdin>", line 1
SyntaxError: not a chance
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LISP, Haskell, Smalltalk (very different oo and even programming model, see this)

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Try Erlang, a very different paradigm and definitely not C-like syntax and semantics. A good on-line starting point is Learn You Some Erlang

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Lambda calculus. I recently read An Introduction to Functional Programming Through Lambda Calculus. It is amazing. I understand programming in a way I never have before (I've be programming for ~15 years). It will give you a solid handle on functional programming and give you a basis to learn any FP language.

The book starts with some very basic concepts, and builds a whole system of computation on top of them. It's a pretty quick read, too.

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You already seem to have quite some programming experience. Grasping high level concepts about new languages shouldn't take you too long. I suggest just toying around with several in order to see whether there are any you find particularly interesting. You can still buy a book to learn it thoroughly afterwards.

I guess the best bet to pick languages which are useable in the industry is by going through some job offers and checking their requirements. This will also give you an overview whether the type of job where the language is used interests you.

Of course, a problem with this approach could be that mainstream jobs only offer jobs in OO languages, but hey, .. then at least you know. ;p

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In my Computer Science Degree (Portugal), Introduction to Programming was done using Scheme (LISP dialect).

I liked very much of it. You can tried. I think that is simpler than LISP, Dr. Scheme is a great IDE to help you to start with Scheme

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I think you might like Clojure, but as they say the paradigms is what matters here. Anyways, I think functional programming is quite trending by now, and it is to find it appealing.

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Prolog was fun, though I didn't get to use it for very long. It is a "declarative" programming language, which basically means you tell it your problem and it works out how to solve it: the order of the statements is irrelevant...

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