There are a few different ideas that come to mind here:
How valued is respect within the culture? How is this value demonstrated? Is there teasing that is intended to build closeness or is it designed to harden someone?
How well are you living these out? Are you supporting others that demonstrate these values? What part do you have in all of this?
Be careful of putting any role as higher than others. There may be times where QA is a hero and there may be times where a developer is a hero. Each role has its place but equally valid is how some people may have to take on multiple roles in the course of a project as a developer may have to also be a tester or a tester may also have to do some business analysis work.
How to Win Friends and Influence People notes 3 key characteristics when dealing with people:
Fundamental Techniques in Handling People
- Don't criticize, condemn, or complain.
- Give honest and sincere appreciation.
- Arouse in the other person an eager want.
Now, while this may seem like common sense consider how well do you see these lived out around you. Are people often complaining? The link above does have other suggestions for influencing people's behaviors or making people like you that may be worth considering here.
I'd be tempted to suggest having many 1:1 conversations with people either away from the office or in a somewhat private room if you want to try to get to the bottom of what is really happening. Perhaps some people think that acting arrogant will get more respect or that the tough guy seems to get more favors than being the nice guy for a couple of ideas. If you are trying to battle ignorance then you could try seeing if other people could take on a different role and see how hard it can be or work very closely with someone to get a better idea of what does that role contain.
If you want something a bit more academic, Group development would be a starting point as there are multiple theories you could try to use if you want to go down that road. An alternative idea would to try to get each person to identify various strengths and weaknesses that they have which should be noted to leverage the best out of each person in the team. Marcus Buckingham's book, "Go Put Your Strengths to Work," discusses a myth of, "A good team member does whatever it takes to help the team. " versus, "A good team member deliberately volunteers their strengths to the team most of the time." 3 Myths About Strengths and Weaknesses would be a blog post about the book.