I have seen a tool (Shed Skin) to translate one high-level language to another high-level language. Apart from knowing those languages what are the other areas of technical knowledge required to develop this kind of translators?
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You are developing a compiler here (a program that translates from one language into another), so I'd consider a firm background in compiler theory both crucial and sufficient to do the job.
Any further knowledge depends on the scope of the job. Compiling Java to C++ would, for example, be mostly trivial when you have a garbage collector implementation at hand. Haskell to C seems to be a much more complicated matter, judging from the slow progress of the ghc.