Probably. Ask a lawyer to be sure.
The key part of this question boils down to "what amount of code is protectable under copyright?" That's what the GPL is founded on - copyright protections. If you can't copyright something, then the GPL can't protect it.
Fortunately, there's a paper that was written by the Software Freedom Law Center titled Originality Requirements under U.S. and E.U. Copyright Law that goes into this with much greater detail that I, as a programmer, can properly interpret. You will likely need to ask a lawyer.
That said, and I'm going to preface this with "I'm only remotely familiar with US copyright law", I am going to go into the "is a single line of code copyrightable" which in turn will answer the "does one line of GPL'ed code make the entire work a derivative work?" If you have any doubts about my answer (and you should) and that this is something important (you've got some code), you should instead talk to a lawyer. Note that different thresholds exist in different countries which may mean that something that a contributor wrote in a different country may be copyrighted even though if you wrote the same thing in your country it wouldn't.
That said, it appears that the Software Copyright Directive from the European Community in 1991 unified the copyright standards across European Community. This had the effect of bringing the laws closer to that of the United States interpretations for originality.
A computer program shall be protected if it is original in the sense that it is the author's own intellectual creation. No other criteria shall be applied to determine its eligibility for protection.
One of the key parts of copyright law is the threshold of originality (though note that some places work on the sweat of the brow doctrine - the US law specifically rejects this). The creativity element is a very low bar and easily passed (you can read more about that at Feist Publications, Inc., v. Rural Telephone Service Co.)
While it is a very low bar, it is not non-existent:
An author’s expression does not need to “be presented in an innovative or surprising way,” but it “cannot be so mechanical or routine as to require no creativity whatsoever.” A work that it is “entirely typical,” “garden-variety,” or “devoid of even the slightest traces of creativity” does not satisfy the originality requirement. Feist, 499 U.S. at 362. “[T]here is nothing remotely creative” about a work that merely reflects “an age-old practice, firmly rooted in tradition and so commonplace that it has come to be expected as a matter of course.” Id. at 363. Likewise, a work “does not possess the minimal creative spark required by the Copyright Act” if the author’s expression is “obvious” or “practically inevitable.” Id. at 363.
Although the creativity standard is low, it is not limitless. Id. at 362. “There remains a narrow category of works in which the creative spark is utterly lacking or so trivial as to be virtually nonexistent. Such works are incapable of sustaining valid copyright.” Id. at 359 (citations omitted)
Further reading about this at Compendium: Chapter 300 Copyrightable Authorship: What Can Be Registered. The originality requirement is section 308.
And so, from this, I would conclude that while
i = 0; is not copyrightable, and thus something that will not cause the work to be a derived work, anything more complex could be and thus firmly in the realm of lawyers to battle it out. One line of code from a GPL'ed source may very well be enough to cause the entire work to fall under the GPL as a derived work. If this is an issue, ask a lawyer.