There are a variety of places you can go:
If you're looking for help with specific coding issues, there's no better place than our sister site, Stack Overflow. For most programming issues, and provided your question is clear enough, you'll generally receive an answer or get put on the right track within a few minutes. After an hour or so, you should have the correct answer.
If you're looking for help with designing a program, getting help with programmer-specific issues, and other, non-code type questions, Programmers.SE might be a great place to do that. While not as rapid as Stack Overflow, provided your question is on-topic you'll receive a number of responses within a day or so.
Stack Overflow and Stack Exchange chat
If a few minutes is too slow for you, or you want a bit of a back-and-forth with other programmers, you ought to tack a look at Stack Overflow's chat network and Programmers.SE's chat room. This is especially a good option if you like the Stack Exchange community, but you don't have a question that fits the Stack Exchange model.
Stack Overflow's rooms are generally pretty active; Programmers.SE's chat room is less active, but Stack Exchange designed a chat system in such a way that it's semi-realtime: you don't have to be in the room to get replies or read the transcript.
Quora and Slashdot
If you still have questions, but those questions aren't the best fit for the Stack Exchange model, you ought to consider Quora. It's a pretty decent alternative, especially for "quick hit"-type questions where you want to build lists of things or have other programmers opine about the general trends in the industry.
Additionally, Slashdot apparently allows poll-type questions via its "Ask Slashdot" feature (example). That might be a good way to find out what a guaranteed-technical audience thinks about a subject.
Reddit and Hacker News
If you're not really into the whole "I need to have a question to get other programmers to talk to me" thing, consider Reddit's Programming subreddit or Hacker News. Both are centered around news and programming stories instead of questions, and are much more casual places to get into off-topic comment threads.