There are a number of patterns and rules that correspond to usability principles. They aren't as concrete as other patterns, since there is variation in the user interface, think web applications versus desktop applications versus mobile devices versus kiosks, each with their own quirks. Users expect different things from different devices, so part of usability is matching user's mental models and expectations.
A few examples of usability rules include the 80/20 rule, Fitts' Law, Hick's Law, and the Rule of Thirds. There are also techniques, such as applying the Golden Ratio, form following function, and monitoring the singal-to-noise ratio, that can be used to enhance user interfaces. There are plenty more - that's just what I can remember off the top of my head from my software usability course.
For books, I would recommend Universal Principles of Design. It discusses a number of usability and user interface concepts that are abstract enough for any application, either desktop or web. Donald Norman's The Design of Everyday Things is also a classic text in interface design, although the focus is on physical objects and not computer-human interfaces.
These should be coupled with the user interface design guidelines for the target platform, if there is one.