You can do mindless web-pages and CRUD and following the Latest Platform for the rest of your life and not know anything, but it's true, knowing some real math helps a lot if you want to go further :)
To do anything complicated, you need to understand at least the basics of discrete mathematics. Discrete maths underly programming the way calculus underlies physics. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrete_mathematics , breaks the field down into its components quite well.
If you're working with graphics, you'll need trigonometry and linear algebra. There's a book called "Rational Trigonometry" out there that always sounded interesting to me, but I could never get any of the game devs I knew to read the blasted thing.
Statistics are handy in a surprising lot of places.
I can't really recommend particular books; I learned all this stuff piecemeal over thirty years. A really BIG college bookstore can be a godsend, because it's the only place you'll see five different texts about any of these fields in the same place.