I don't know which topics you are interested in, there are plenty of choices, so pick the ones you like most. Here are some mathematical topics which I had to deal with the last 15 years in my job as a programmer:
And since you called "Algorithms" a mathematical topic, yes, I sometimes needed some things from the "Algorithms and data structures" lessons I took at the university.
(But that's me, perhaps in your career you will have a different focus.)
EDIT: found this links, maybe useful for you:
And this book is a really good one about discrete mathematics for programmers:
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