Firstly you might want to go look at TeamCity as another option for your server.
In my view (though I've somewhat less experience with Jenkins than with TeamCity) both are excellent and very capable tools - I'd be happy in an environment using either.
Ok, to get to the meat of the problem i.e.
Is there a way for CI to check if the project is compiling to the coding standards (like loose coupling and so on)?
At the most fundamental level all that a CI server does is run a script and then interpret and present the results of running that script - so if you can script it then your CI server can probably run it and if you can format the output appropriately then the CI server can probably interpret and report on the result.
Of course the major build servers are already capable of talking to/integrating with a lot of popular tools - so really the question becomes what tooling are you using to check your coding standards and does that integrate with your choice of CI server.
Yes, the CI server brings a lot more to the game in terms of automation than just mindlessly running a script - but at the end of the day that's what its doing.
Just to be clear - I know that a build server does more than just run scripts, its the automation of the process (and in particular the integration with (D)VCS) that adds value - but in answering the "what do I need for a build server" question the answer is "a server and script" everything else flows from there.