C has pointers and Java has what is called references. They have some things in common in the sense that they all point to something. I know that pointers in C store the addresses they point to. Do reference also store the address? How they are different except that pointer is more flexible and error-prone?
References might be implemented by storing the address. Usually Java references will be implemented as pointers, but that's not required by the specification. They may be using an additional layer of indirection to enable easier garbage collection. But in the end it will (almost always) boil down to (C-style) pointers being involved in the implementation of (Java-style) references.
You can't do pointer arithmetic with references. The most important difference between a pointer in C and a reference in Java is that you can't actually get to (and manipulate) the underlying value of a reference in Java. In other words: you can't do pointer arithmetic.
In C you can add something to a pointer (i.e. the address) or substract something to point to things that are "nearby" or point to places that are at any place.
In Java, a reference points to one thing and that thing only. You can make a variable hold a different reference, but you can't just ask it to point to "the thing after the original thing".
References are strongly typed. Another difference is that the type of a reference is much more strictly controlled in Java than the type of a pointer is in C. In C you can have an
Those differences make C pointers more powerful, but also more dangerous. Both of those possibilities (pointer arithmetic and re-interpreting the values being pointed to) add flexibility to C and are the source of some of the power of the language. But they are also big sources of problems, because if used incorrectly they can easily break assumptions that your code is built around. And it's pretty easy to use them incorrectly.
C++ references are different again.
They have to be initialized and can't be null (at least not in a well formed program) and can't be reseated to refer to something else. a C++ reference is much more like an alias for an object.
Another important difference between pointers and Java/C++ references is that you can take the address of a pointer you cannot access the address of a reference (indeed a C++ reference need not actually exist as an object in memory at all) consequently you can have a pointer to a pointer but not a reference to a reference
Java References and C pointers differ in exactly two points:
Someone wrote that References are strongly typed, because you cannot force the compiler to treat an
Someone wrote that Java references might be implemented as C pointers, to which I say sure, as they are strictly less powerful, on 32Bit machines they typically are, if the JVM is implemented in C. Though on 64Bit machines, they are normally compressed ordinary-object-pointers ("compressed OOPs") to save space and bandwidth.
They are slightly different. In Java a copy of the reference is copied to the stack of a called function, pointing to the same object as the calling function and allowing you to manipulate that object. However you cannot change the object the calling function refers to.
Consider the following java code
Now consider a pointer in c++:
protected by gnat Aug 20 at 14:35
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