Well, lets not mix concepts.
In one side...
MVC is a software architectural pattern. It can be applied to Desktop apps aswell, where HTTP is not necessarily involved.
In the other side...
HTTP is a comunication protocol. Like wikipedia say:
is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems
So, you are asking if HTTP support any other way to pass information (parametrized) alternative to query strings
HTTP Comunications are made in terms of Requests and Responses
In any request it's informed also a METHOD. It's just an instruction to the server-side application to tell what we expect server should do with the info we send. But it's not a mechanism to pass information. It's an additional instruction no more no less.
Beside methods, here we have 3 possible ways to pass parameters to the server
1. Query String
Method involved: GET
Info is informed (parametrized) into the URL. This's the example you exposed
Its capacity is limited to 64Kb (if memory serves). This's the basic way
Methods involved: POST|PUT
A message is expected into the body of the Request. This Message is known as payload,form,body but It can be also binaries. The format of the message can be xml,text plain,json,....
However, we still are able to pass info via query string in the same request. So part of the info is going to be in the URL and another part is going to be at request's body
Info here goes encrypted if we are working under SSL enviornment.
For basic information and tutorials, check out this link W3Schools - Html Forms. Take it as an example of how to send info via Forms from an html form.
Methods involved: Any
Any Request from A to B (being B the server-side) has a header. Info here is not intended to be processed by your app's business. It's not data related to your business. However you can put info anyways. It's the place where security tokens are informed between a client and any securized API Rest. Plus some other parameters related to the environment and some parameters addressed to the web server. Also informs the content type expected in the response and also the content type of the info sent (xml, json, binary, multipart, etc..)
So yes there're some other ways to inform parameters to the server. But the way to implement such ways depends on your platform. There're many platforms and frameworks oriented to make this task easy. At this point we would need to know on what platform is your project running at. On which programming language is being built.
Finally I would like to point at Rest can not be described as a supported mechanism of HTTP protocol to pass info. It's a software architectural style.
It uses URL sintaxy to pass info, put It's a convention, not a mechanism of the protocol
To your answer
If I would need to register a new row in a table in the database, how should we pass the various value of column into the system?
The best way is going to be by: POST, using html forms. Check out W3schools - HTML Forms
Another way can be by: POST, using Ajax. This way has more complexity. But let you send an stack of changes in a single request.
To do so via Html form is little bit more complicated.
Would be good to know which libraries or frameworks are you using in your project.
Note: It's intended in this post to make a brief, not a technical introduction to HTTP. Any fix or any better way to say what I tried to explain is wellcome.