Patterns aren't really platform-specific; they're about solving a particular issue. So the patterns to apply vary on the type of application. Platforms almost always have baked-in patterns that aren't explicitly mentioned.
You're likely using many patterns without being aware of them (observer, service layers, transaction scripts, active record, controller, factory, etc...). So, perhaps another good question to ask is "What patterns should I understand to take advantage of the Android Platform?", or "What patterns aren't implemented in Android but make development easier?" (which is much more subjective, especially without a firm definition of what it is you're working on.
So perhaps the best answer for you isn't to ask for advice but to do some studying to see what you're using but not acknowledging. Fowler's Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture is a great read for this--and it's "Cheat Sheet" in the rear-cover is an awesome way to start reading the book.