In my experience something like that happens because a couple of reasons.
- Some higher-up somewhere has zero experience with software development and what is required to work. They might see software developer as nothing more than a glorified keyboard jockey, who is no different than a secretary.
- Management wants the developer closer to the decision makers and the call center is the only place near them. This happened to me a long time ago, a decision was made to move the developers closer to the project managers. But the only place open was in front of HR, so I got to listen to phone interviews all day.
- Some higher-up somewhere thinks it is a cost saving advantage. Do they pay the developer while they are traveling out to the branches? If so, that could be time spent coding. I once worked for a company where an executive killed daily stand-ups because they saw we were spending 15 minutes each day not coding.
As @User16764 points out, regardless of the reason, this fails the Joel test of a quiet place to work. But the Joel Test also points out developers should have their own office. As nice as a private office is, most companies are not going to spring for one. I wouldn't go in demanding a private office or anything like that. Just a quieter cube, because that is an easier pill for managers to swallow. If they don't budge then it might be time to start looking for employment elsewhere because what your describing is not an acceptable working environment.