According to ISTQB (and few more sources + wiki ), a defect/bug is the actual cause of error in software, e.g. incorrect statement, logical or semantic error. The actual definion is: a flaw in the system or component that could lead to the failure. But what about specification bugs? I cannot relate to it. Specification bugs are quite common but if the programmer implements software according to spec with a bug, it is not his fault (IMHO). But then the definion could not apply and I am sure it must have been addressed somehow. Could you help me to understand this?
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If you're looking for formal terminology, I'd forget the term "bug" all together. Only consider mistake, error, fault, and failure. Based on IEEE610.12-90, the definitions are (as provided in the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge:
Your "bug" is actually what is formally called a fault. However, that fault was injected by a mistake in an earlier process. In your example, the specification contained a mistake.