Other than the fact that Erlang was specifically developed to be run in concurrent/parallelized/distributed situations, the two main techniques that it employs making this possible are:
No side effects:
This means, when you give a function a piece of data to execute against, it will not except in very strict cases affect anything else in the system/running process. This means that if you execute a function 300 times all at once concurrently, none of those 300 executions of the function will effect any of the others.
The implementation technique for ensuring no side effects is called "immutability" which roughly means, may not be mutated(changed). This means that as soon as you create a variable, the value of that variable may not be modified. Erlang implements this behavior with "single assignment" so after you assign a value to a variable, you may not assign a value to it again.
X = 1.
X = 2. // This is not a valid operation
This ensures no code may accidentally change the value of X causing a race condition, therefore it is inherently thread-safe and concurrent use becomes trivial. This is a very uncommon behavior among software languages and the biggest way Erlang manages to be so well suited for concurrent execution.
The actor model:
This is a particular way of modelling that has shown to make the implementation and management of concurrent processing very simple for developers. Straight from wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model):
The Actor model adopts the philosophy that everything is an actor.
This is similar to the everything is an object philosophy used by some
object-oriented programming languages, but differs in that
object-oriented software is typically executed sequentially, while the
Actor model is inherently concurrent. An actor is a computational
entity that, in response to a message it receives, can concurrently:
send a finite number of messages to other actors; create a finite
number of new actors; designate the behavior to be used for the next
message it receives. There is no assumed sequence to the above actions
and they could be carried out in parallel. Decoupling the sender from
communications sent was a fundamental advance of the Actor model
enabling asynchronous communication and control structures as patterns
of passing messages.