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How do vector registers work in terms of calculations and alloting data to them ? Is there a detailed reference available somewhere explaining how vector registers work and how data is fetched from them ?

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Are you asking how to write programs using vector registers, or how a CPU designer implements vector registers in the hardware? –  Karl Bielefeldt Sep 17 '12 at 13:11
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There are machine architecture reference manuals put out by Intel and AMD, which document (among many other things) exactly how vector registers and instructions in modern x86-style processors work.

ARM has comparable documentation for their architecture and its associated vector processing.

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Well, one of the earliest vector registers was the H/L register pair. I think that dates back to the 8080, perhaps the 8008. In the end, a vector register is nothing very special. Instructions still need to specify input register(s), output register(s), and operations. On a silicon level, it means that one operation is dispatched multiple times with different registers, usually in parallel.

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