Short version is that modern programming is NOT tied to the underlying logic within the chips themselves.
Most / all modern programming languages abstract away that level of interaction. Even if you got to the level of Assembly or specific machine code, you're still not working at the level of the logic on the chip itself.
Digital logic design (which is what you're asking about) is still performed for various chips, but this is definitely a small subset of the programming that goes on today. There are high-level interpreters that facilitate the design and the necessary logic reductions, but they bear little resemblance to something you would recognize as a Java programmer.
Additional thoughts, in broad terms:
The CPU is a chip consisting of bazillions of transistors that are wired together in various ways. The specifics of the wiring is dictated by Boolean Logic and available reductions. Ultimately, the chip offers up an API through the instruction set.
High level languages such as java are ultimately compiled down to machine language, which is a series of instructions being fed to the chip. Java complicates things a little since it goes through a virtual machine in order to generate the chip-level instructions. Other languages use a compiler to generate the associated assembly and machine code.
Even when a high level programming language offers bitwise operations, these operations are not generating new Boolean logic to be executed by the chip. The bitwise operations are exposed through the instruction set of the chip and the compiler / VM allow the high level language to access those operations.
There is an exception to all of this, which is the realm of programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Here, the programmer is ultimately creating the Boolean Logic involved that will drive the chip. However, this logic generation is still generally obscured from the programmer and is built by the compiler for the PLC. You could therefore use the same | similar high level code with a different compiler / PLC and it would (should) still work just fine. There are some nuances with portability, but I'm arbitrarily declaring that out of scope for the question...