As said by @pdr - I am not aware of a set of formally recognized terms. Those used by commonly SVN/CVS are universally understood - repo/checkout/commit etc. Personally I would use this Wikipedia Page.
You should do is create a glossary of terms, based on Wikipedia, and within your team, ensure that you use those terms in all documents. Once complete - consider updating the Wikipedia page.
Edit : -From a comment I made....
In most real world cases I have seen, there is not a lot of difference between how DVCS and centralized ones are used on a daily bases. Even where the power of DVCS is utilized, it's through a set of recipe commands. As such - although conceptually different, to all practical purposes it is theoretical for most developers - therefore common terminology for the daily workflow performed by developers is quite easy.
For instance, @Kaz argues that a Git Clone is a repository- which technically is correct. Practically for most developers it is not treated as anything other than a local copy of a master repository and the actions the perform on it are essentially the same as they do on a CVS checkout - Clone / branch / check in / merge / update push (Git) or "Merge into master branch" (CVS/SVN etc). Litmus test - do you backup the clone every night. If not, it's not a repository, it's a working copy.
Yes - the recipe is different, but the cake tastes surprisingly similar in typical cases.