As a relatively new (self-taught) web developer, I've heard the terms front-end, client-side, back-end, and server-side quite often. To me, front-end and back-end were always synonymous with client-side and server-side, respectively.
However, as I've begun working with MVC frameworks like CodeIgniter, I've come across a few instances of front-end referring to basically anything the end user sees (including server-side code), while back-end has referred to anything the end-user doesn't see (including CMSs). Client-side and server-side, to me, are much more concrete in their meanings; they have a very distinct line separating them. Front-end and back-end, on the other hand, do not.
In a conversation I remember having with another web developer, he referred to CodeIgniter (in its entirety) as a front-end, and this threw me for a loop. I wasn't sure whether to correct him and say that CodeIgniter was my back-end, or if my definitions of the two terms were completely wrong.
Searching for definitions of front- and back-end confused me a bit more in some respects, though they did clarify a few things. I'd just like to know where the lines are drawn between these four terms, and how they piece together in the context of web development (specifically on a LAMP stack).