I'm just investigating the security and control of the Linux platform in comparison to Android.
In Android there seems to be a huge development around security - Applications are required to ask for system permissions, and if the user grants that permission, then the system allows that application to execute with those granted privileges.
It isn't like that on vanilla Linux. Applications can access anything they want, albeit not granting them to modify files, but nevertheless. Users simply don't know how applications work, and what information - sensitive information - they take and what they do with that information (upload it to a database and sell it to 3rd parties).
So what is this dealt with?
I'd imagine the Linux kernel has to be modified so it accepts access tokens per application basis or something similar.
Windows at least has some type of security system with it's built in firewall and local authority service. (I know little about Windows.)