Before starting on a current project I was wondering if there is a terminology for what I am planning on doing? Basically what I want to do is map out every object in layers such as all the controllers and what they'll be called, the methods that will exist under the controllers and their purpose; Including, the models that the methods will be interacting with and the views that will be displayed based on certain actions. This way I've created a detailed to-do list and can catch any duplicates and make them as one call. I've heard of something called doctrine but I'm not sure if it will be what im looking for since i dont know how to use it but have heard of it having to do with documentation.
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There are two sides to your question.
The process of writing down which classes there are and which methods they likely will have and how they will interact is called design.
The process of deciding in which order to make it all is called planning.
With both the design and planning, you can do as much or as little of it as you like, but I would strongly advise not to set the results of either in stone. As you work on the first portions of your code, you will invariably find smaller or larger gaps in either the design or the planning and you should be prepared to adapt both as you go along.