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I was making a Python program to measure the growth of codereview.SE. My approach was to get the "Site stats" shown on the front page and store them on my hard drive. I plan to do this once every day. So far I have made enough to get the stats and append them to a text file. The python script can be viewed on github. The format I am using is the following

22-08-2013

questions 9073
answers 15326
answered 88
users 26102
visitors/day 7407

22-08-2013

questions 9073
answers 15326
answered 88
users 26102
visitors/day 7407

I just ran the script twice to get the format I would be using in the file. Initially this seemed good to me because I would be storing it myself and the format would be the same so it would be easily parsed but not I am not sure. It seems that using a database should be a better here because that way retrieving data should be easier. Just a note, I have never used any database and have no knowledge of SQL, MySQL or any other variants of RDBMS.

So this brings me to the question. When should a database be preferred for storing the data over storing the data in a text file? Are there some pointers that I can look for when making decisions about whether I need a database or simple text files?

PS: If better tags can be added please do so. I had some doubts about the tags which could be added.

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"Every tool is a liability until you learn how to use it." –  JeffO Aug 22 '13 at 15:17
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A database may or may not be appropriate for your project. You might, however, find that using a simpler format would be helpful. There's a CSV module that's standard with Python that you might consider using. Having a CSV would simplify exporting the data into other programs (eg - into a spreadsheet so you can graph it). –  Sean McSomething Aug 22 '13 at 20:52
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5 Answers

up vote 1 down vote accepted

When should a database be preferred for storing the data over storing the data in a text file?

Wikipedia tells us that a database is an organized collection of data. By that measure, your text file is a database. It goes on to say:

The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring this information. For example, modeling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.

That part is subjective -- it doesn't tell us specifically how the data should be modeled or what operations need to be optimized. Your text file consists of a number of distinct records, one for each day, so you're modeling an aspect of reality in a way that's relevant to your problem.

I realize that when you say "database" you're probably thinking of some sort of relational database management system, but thinking of your text file as a database changes your question from "when should I use a database?" to "what kind of database should I use?" Seeing things in that light makes the answer easier to see: use a better database when the one you've got no longer meets your requirements.

If your Python script and simple text file work well enough, there's no need to change. With only one new record per day and computers getting faster each year, I suspect that your current solution could be viable for a long time. A decade's worth of data would give you only 3650 records that, once parsed, would probably require less than 75 kilobytes.

Imagine that instead of one small record per day, you decided to record every question asked on CodeReview, who asked it, and when. Furthermore, you also collect all the answers and the relevant metadata. You could store all that in a text file, but a flat file would make it difficult to find information when you needed it. There'd be too much data to read the whole thing into memory, so whenever you wanted to find a question or answer, you'd have to scan through the file until you found what you were looking for. When you wanted to find all the questions asked by a given user, you'd have to scan through the entire file. If you wanted to find all the questions that have "bugs" as a tag, you'd have to scan through the file.

That'd be horribly slow, so you might decide to speed things up by building some indexes that tell you where to look in the file to find a given record. You could have an index for questions, another for users, a third for answers, and so on. When you wanted to find a question you'd search the (much smaller) question index, get the position of the question in the main data file, and jump quickly to the right spot in the file. That'd be a big performance improvement. Indeed, that's pretty much what a database management system is.

So, use a DBMS when it's what you need. Use it when you have a lot of data, when you need to be able to access that data quickly and perhaps in ways that you can't entirely predict at the outset. If you have different kinds of data -- different types of records -- that are connected to each other, use a RDBMS so that you can relate the various records appropriately.

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"thinking of your text file as a database changes " Very insightful. Also the part about me only having 3650 entries was helpful. It helped to get a real perspective of the problem. –  Aseem Bansal Aug 23 '13 at 7:13
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Data bases have many advantages, but making access easier isn't one of them. Faster, more standardized, interpretable as an embedded command sublanguage, safer, yes - but not easier. No matter how much syntactic sugar your language and standard library provide, you have to have a data base in the first place, open a connection to it and route data from your program something completely different and back. As long as there are no problems with what you do, and ease of programming is your priority, never switch to a database just because you think it's "good practice".

My take on when to make the switch is to follow the historical development. After all, people stored data in files for a long time before the relational DB was invented, and in fact a whole bunch of inferior database models (hierarchical DB, network DB...) were invented before that. They started writing data bases and used them when it became clear that this would save major processing effort, increase reliability etc. overall and in the long run. As long as that's not the case for you, and you don't foresee it becoming the case any time soon, switching would be over-engineering.

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Isn't the cohesiveness offered better according to overall design? e.g. in my case I am storing 5 values corresponding to each date. In the current state there isn't any cohesiveness among the data. –  Aseem Bansal Aug 22 '13 at 12:56
    
You're right, ensuring that all records have a consistent set of fields and values is another of these advantages. (Strictly speaking it is only relational data bases which guarantee that. People used non-relational data bases in production for a long time, and currently they are gaining traction again with the "NoSQL" movement.) –  Kilian Foth Aug 22 '13 at 13:20
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Databases are used for not just storing but manipulating and querying data, therefore you'd have to make an educated decision:

A big factor is the benefit you get from installing a database on the machine vs the functionality it brings

Obviously if you need to query and manipulate the data, and you want access to be speedy - and additionally you might be thinking about using a database for other functions then it might be a good idea. Databases storage models allow data to be looked up by key values very quickly, and I can imagine parsing a file could be slow (depending on how you are doing it)

If you want to have a play with SQL and what it can do, SQLFiddle.com has a few different RDBMS models which you can toy around with (run queries, create schema etc)

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Python has an in-built standard library interface for sqlite3. So installing a database isn't a problem. My consideration is that if I keep on storing data then unless I have some sort of indexing it may become slow. A database can take care of that, I think. I downloaded sqlite3 separately to learn it, found that I needed to learn about database models before using a database, tried that. I can learn sqlite3 using internet based examples but am currently having problems learning the database models. Then it came to my mind if it was even worth the trouble? –  Aseem Bansal Aug 22 '13 at 12:39
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This will of course be a judgement call, but the three main criteria I would consider are: does it need to be ACID compliant, how complex the data is and finally, how many things need to read/write it. As long as you are simply reading and writing one line per and your app is the only app doing either reading or writing, you can probably skip the database. Once you start having multiple apps either reading or writing or your data structure becomes complex (particularly if it has relationships between seperate lines) then a DB starts looking really attractive.

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"how many things need to read/write it" - That helped. –  Aseem Bansal Aug 23 '13 at 7:16
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As always using a database or not depends on what you need to do. If you have a huge amount of data and you need to perform many different queries on it, probably a database could help you.

In your case I would keep the storage in a test file until the performance are acceptable. Usually reading a text file (even big) doesn't take that long. If you need more you can always add the database later.

For my experience, if you are completely new to databases you may find easier using something like couchdb: http://couchdb.apache.org/ which is no-sql and you can use directly javascript or python, etc. for queries.

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