Jean Sammet's Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals is a good place to start. From the top Amazon review, it gives is an overview of about 120 languages, with examples from about 30.
Wexelblat's History of Programming Languages and Bergin & Gibson's History of Programming Languages, Volume 2 cover quite a bit of territory.
All of these are quite dated, covering languages from years, even decades ago. This is a Good Thing. It will teach you that there were such things as computers and programming languages before IBM invented the PC and Microsoft invented the operating system. (Yes, I'm joking.) It will also give you some perspective on where we came from, and how and why some of the old languages are in fact considerable improvements on their more modern successors.
Beyond that, you have to start digging into the old literature, of the languages your father and even your grandfather used.
I'm 58. My father and I learned FORTRAN IV at UT Austin in 1970. I learned BASIC and PASCAL a few years later, while still in high school. I started learning CDC 6600 COMPASS (central processor assembly language) around then, and got serious about it in Summer of 1973. It wasn't until quite a few years later that I actually started really programming in C. (I think it was 1987, hacking MIDI on an Atari 1040ST. I had a copy of the floppy-based Software Toolworks C for CP/M, but I never really did anything with it.)
You absolutely must learn LISP. I personally recommend the Scheme dialect, and I concur with the SICP recommendation in the other post. There's an online version at MIT, and a supporting site.
I strongly recommend learning FORTH, or at least reading Leo Brodie's Starting FORTH. It will give you a very different perspective on computing. There's an online version at FORTH, Inc., and they offer a free (as in beer) unlimited-duration trial system. FORTH, Inc. are good people, even though Liz Rather has retired, and even though she and I did disagree on one key point of what makes FORTH a great environment.
For a different perspective completely, read Henry Ledgard's paper "Ten Mini-Languages: A Study of Topical Issues in Programming Languages". Rather than discussing full languages, he constructs "mini-languages" that illustrate important concepts in programming language theory and design.
This will give you something to chew on.