Maybe. It all depends on "the one".
My view on software engineering is similar to that of any other skilled craft and I'm a huge proponent of Software Craftsmanship movement. Just like with any other skill, if you want to get good at making software(or houses, sculptures, swords... etc), you need to practice. That's why some people will tell you, you just need 10k hours and they won't be wrong. However...
There is an expression that "practice makes it perfect," but there's also another expression, "perfect practice makes it perfect." If you don't know what you are doing and you keep repeating incorrect action for a full year, what you acquired is a bad skill that a more experienced person would tell you that you shouldn't be doing.
In most other professions, having a mentor when you first start off isn't an option or a choice but a requirement and I think it is very unfortunate that in software engineering field we do not have that. I've seen numerous times (and been there myself) where a completely fresh graduate joins the team and he is simply given a project and then asked, "when do you think you'll have it done". People are thrown in with full expectation that they will "just pick it up" and that is not the case. It takes a lot of practice and a lot of trial and error to truly pick up the skill (any skill).
A while ago I had a discussion with my manager and he was upset with one of our senior developers (who had about 10 years on top of my 15). This guy's code quality wasn't meeting certain standards but he was (still is) a really smart guy and actually did a lot of good stuff on our team. My manager exclaimed, "he has 20+ years of programming experience, he should know better!!" To which my reply was, "Why? I went to the same college he went to, and school didn't teach me this stuff. Did you tell him what he should know? Did anyone before you? I know I didn't."
Can you become a master-level craftsman without any mentorship? Probably but it also depends on you. Not everyone will.
What I do know is that I got lucky enough to have an absolutely awesome mentor whom I met at my first co-op and I ended up working with that guy together for 7 years. In the first 6-12 months, he ingrained in me the skills/view on my work/view on management/view on software that I use to this day on daily basis. In turn, I've had 3 co-ops work for me in the past and at the end of their blocks all of them came into my cube and thanked for an eye-opening experience.
If you can find a mentor, never turn away the opportunity. If you can't find one at your current job, consider looking for a different one. Think of finding a mentor now like a interest on the savings account. What you invest now, will be paying off every single year from now and for the rest of your career.
That's a good book list, you linked to. Of those books, I would definitely recommend you take a look at these ones:
- The Pragmatic Programmer
- Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship by Robert C. Martin
- Peopleware by Demarco and Lister
- Agile Principles, Patterns, and Practices in C# by Robert C. Martin
- Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code
- The Mythical Man Month
- Design Patterns by the Gang of Four (only after you read 2 and 4)