Alec the Geek's answer is great, but I'd like to add a few things.
A lot of the documents he mentions apply to fixed-price projects, and I haven't used them since I switched to only working by the hour eight years ago. For instance, I don't use change order documents. If somebody wants a change, I just give them a ballpark estimate, and proceed if they agree.
If the prospect doesn't bring it up first, I insist on signing a non-disclosure agreement very early, usually after the first or second phone conversation. I also have a standard NDA if the prospect doesn't have one. Depending on what you do, that may not be important for you.
While I have a process, I don't talk about it that way with prospects - I think it sounds pretentious. Also, sometimes clients have their own processes, and if they do, you need to fit in with those.
Take version control, for example. I ask, "What do you do for version control?" Sometimes they say, "We use X and we'll give you VPN access and a login," and then we're good to go. Or sometimes they ask, "Version control? What's that" and then I say, "Okay, never mind, I'll send you code drops. How often do you want them?" Then I use my own version control server, and they don't need to know anything more.
In many ways, the most important thing is just promoting good communication. Try to be relaxed in talking with your prospect, ask lots of questions, and be genuinely concerned about helping them meet whatever need led them to contact you. Most people will value that personal touch much more than paperwork.