Find another Job
The real problem here is culture. If you had to introduce the other developers to jQuery they don't know web development 101 and probably just don't give a damn about best practices. Maybe they just turn up work 8 hours and collect their pay, devoid of any passion for programming. When you try to get these people to learn anything they'll put up a lot of resistance rather than see the new tool as something interesting and time saving. I am looking for a new job because I think it's just easier to work along side like minded people. Maybe your feathers are too bright for the cage.
I'm in a similar situation right now. Funnily enough I want to switch off Codeigniter onto a better framework like Django, Rails or Symfony (better models, command-line and forms). Before I was hired some bad work was done in cowboy PHP, and the team is still frustrated maintaining those legacy projects. You can't escape it. It's hard enough to get a procedures manual or get everyone using a git repository for each project. But these two are slowly getting done. It could be another 5 years before I will be working 100% on Django/Rails the way things are going.
In my short career I've worked in one place which actually had a tone of documentation on how things are done, how to create a new project in a repo, how to copy it onto the production server and so on. Everyone followed the company way of doing things because the boss was a developer and made sure things were done properly.
In the mean time school up on some other languages or frameworks, it will make you more employable even if your knowledge never makes it into your current workplace.
I'm building a website with a co-worker in Django which I will later show my boss and put in my portfolio for head hunters to see.
Sneak it in the back door
The other option, which may just piss off your co-workers is to sneak your tool of choice in the back door by just ignoring them and using it anyway. If you get assigned a small project in which your the only developer that would be a good candidate.