The VCL is literally filled with implementations of patterns, many of which have come straight out of the GoF book itself.
I think that one problem that many people have when using Delphi is that Delphi allows a class with abstract methods to be compiled and used at run time provided the abstract methods are not called. The only thing that is purely abstract are Interfaces. Everything else that is needed for class inheritance and supporting multiple interfaces works with Delphi, so I can't really see how you would have any difficulty implementing ANY of the GoF Patterns. I've certainly never had any difficulty in the 14 or so years that I've been using the language.
As for multiple inheritance, what does that have to do with patterns? Multiple inheritance is rife with problems conceptually, particularly if you are attempting to implement a descendant of two classes that present interfaces where there are identical methods with slightly different implementations. Which one would be used, and how would you choose? Interfaces solve this problem very elegantly in that you can use many interfaces in a single class implementation, and at different levels of the ancestry of a class.
If you have problems implementing specific patterns, perhaps a question on ProgrammersSE with some example code would help you to gain a better understanding about ways to overcome a particular problem in Delphi. I'm sure they would make great questions.