So, are there any advantages of
learning Clojure after Python in the
way I can write programs?
Compared to Python, Clojure focuses on a more functional approach. It is not as rigidly as Haskell enforcing referential integrity, but strongly encourages functional programming, and thus is a good choice for introducing you to a generally more functional style. Unlike Haskell, it is not a pure functional language in the strict sense, as there are means of altering mutable state, and you are not forced to separate side effecting from pure code, although this is widely considered good style. Clojure provides efficient persistent lazy datastructures supporting this.
My impression is, that Guido is not really a friend of functional programming, and that he and the Python community simply made other design choices. That does not make Python a lesser language, but a rather different, more "conventional" one. So you will discover other and very powerful means of abstraction and composition, as well as other algorithmic approaches in languages like Clojure or Haskell -- a different view on programming. (For example a shift of focus to transformations of data using different higher order functions, function composition and so on. This is also possible in Python, being a modern language that incorporates some of these features, but functional languages take it to another level.)
As far as other Lisps are concerned: Clojure is more oriented towards functional programming than most Lisps in use today. Although they are among the oldest functional programming languages, it is not true that Lisps in general discourage imperative programming. CL for example is a very eclectic language, which will allow you to program in a variety of paradigms -- It has a very elaborated OOP-System (CLOS), to mention just one.
Apart from the functional programming aspect, you will also learn about the benefits of homoiconic languages and a fully featured Lisp macro system. There are very few languages which treat code as data and allow, to this extent, forging the language (thus DSLs) at your hearts content. The point here is not only that this is possible, but that it is made as easy as possible. So, even if Haskell might be the better choice for learning about functional programming (of course this also depends on taste), Clojure has the additional benefit of being in the Lisp family of programmable programming languages.
Those are the two major points you are going to learn about, coming from Python to Clojure.
Clojure also heavily focuses on parallel/concurrent programming. On one hand, this is a feature shared by functional languages in general, because eschewing mutable state means avoiding one big source of bugs in such programs. On the other hand, Clojure was specifically designed to make concurrent programming easy.
Another important difference between Clojure and Haskell is Clojure's -- not only as far as typing is concerned -- more dynamic approach to programming. (That is true for all Lisp dialects I know.) At the moment, I am more fond of Haskell, and really appreciating its impressive type system, but I would say that you could really benefit from Clojure as a means to widen your horizon. There are different approaches to programming, and learning about them will definitely make you a more rounded programmer.