Which programming language first introduced 'Hello World' as a first program to code for beginners?
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The history section of the Wikipedia article indicates it came from C.
The convention was introduced for the general public in K&R - Kernigan and Richie: The C Programming Language - which is the canonical introduction to C. That book became the canonical because it was succinct reflecting in its thinness.
The updated version covering ANSI C is worth reading simply for their approach to writing documentation.