In my experience, Mathematical formulae are used for very specific calculations, which may or may not apply to your project.
If you need to calculate something, there is usually a function in a library or example source code around that can calculate it for you. For example, Excel's PMT() function, that calculates the payments required to repay a debt at X% over Y periods. Do you really want to have to know how it calculates it, or is it sufficient to just call the built-in one?
In the last 10 years, I don't think I've needed to use anything from the Math library other than Ceil(), Min() and Max(), which shows that even though computers were devised to solved math-based problems, the common use today is decision-making around the flow of data.
Take, for example, Facebook, which has a massive amount of code. There's probably some Math in there somewhere, but I suspect mainly in the Crypto API, which is probably a system library. But the database access, authorization decisions, page building and information routing probably don't use a whole lot of Math.
Yes, there are markets that need lots of Math - finance, physics, engineering - but in these industries, your primary discipline is more likely to be Math/Economics, Physics, Engineering, etc, so your questions would be 'how can I write formula f(x) in language Y?'
A better use of your time, IMO, would be to investigate Algorithms (including Big O notation) and Design Patterns.