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Is java used out of web and without GUI? To develop web applications you have to learn design stuff, html+css+javascript+ajax => it takes really a lot of time to learn it. Developing a GUI application also requires design skills. Is it possible to write something in pure java and what exactly?

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I'd say that's where Java shines, even. There are quite a number of large sites out there that have a friendly PHP face (e.g. blah.php all over URLs), but where the actual grunt work is done in Java - business logic, event handling (through JMS), database I/O (through JDBC), etcetera. By splitting PHP and Java you can have PHP-talking web designers concentrate on the look and feel of the site, and Java developers doing all the business integration that's often necessary in the back - by using Java, you gain access to better libraries, better scalability and performance, and often better developers as well.

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Is it possible to write something in pure java and what exactly?

Yes, You could do something as simple as opening a text file, parsing it and saving manipulated information in another text file. Furthermore you could batch that job and then even send it via email to someone :)

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You can definitely write Java code that does not rely on UI code to function. For instance, I wrote a console-based executable JAR that recursively finds, tags, and marks images in a particular directory on my headless server. You can start by creating a simple class with a "public static void main(String[] arts)" method and have your debugger execute it.

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At my last job, we used Java to do geospatial processing; find the quickest/shortest routes between points A and B, line-of-sight calculations, etc. These results were fed into a GUI component, but it was separate from the geo code.

There's plenty of stuff that Java's good for that doesn't involve the Web or GUIs.

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