Some would say that an MS or MBA is the junior programmer's "apprenticeship". Depending on the program, they'd be right; there are courses taught in design patterns, advanced framework topics, etc etc, and many of these programs are tailored for working professionals. However, the best method available to transfer knowledge about a specific area of the job is simply for senior programmers to "mentor" junior members while they work. This is similar to an "apprenticeship"; a tradesman will go to a trade school to learn the basics, then they will get a job where for the first few years of their career, they will either be looking over someone's shoulder or have someone looking over theirs. After some years of this, they undergo a test, become certified as a "master" at their trade, and are free to do what they will with their knowledge. Doctors and lawyers have similar processes; after med school, a "doctor" gets an internship and then a residency in a general field, during which they observe and are instructed by more senior doctors and learn a LOT more about medicine than they ever could in a classroom or skills lab. Then after that they either stay on in the hospital as an attending, or they go into private practice in any number of sub-fields. A lawyer first becomes a junior associate assisting the partner, then a senior associate handling minor cases on their own, then when they're making enough regular money for the firm or they become highly recognized by others in the area, they get a stake as a partner (which may be divided into junior and senior levels as well).
As programmers, there are levels of professional certification, but unlike most "artisan trades", or, at the other end of academia, doctors, lawyers, professors etc., there is no one governing body for programmers. The field is too new; people have been building houses and infrastructure, arguing legal cases and treating illness for hundreds or even thousands of years, but the field of software engineering as we know it is only about 30-40 years old. As such, we're still determining the fundamental "best ways" to do our work (and to teach it), and there's considerable room for discussion on these topics. Meanwhile, tradesmen, doctors and lawyers, though their fields are just as organic, have set down those standards of procedure decades and centuries ago, and are making only minor changes as technology allows for better ways. We can borrow, but elements of our field are very different, such as the exponential pace of technology (law is having a hard time keeping pace with the questions the online frontier is posing while the software engineers are on the cuttong edge, and medicine, despite the cool diagnostic and surgical tools being developed, could stand to invest in a few tablet computers to digitize their charts).