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I've already been programming for quite some time and have a firm grasp on programming itself, OOP, and a few other programming related things. However, I'm interested in learning the same things that would be taught to a computer science graduate, and was wondering what I need to cover?

In case it's relevant, I've programmed with PHP, Java, Python, C & C++ and I'm looking into Lisp/Scheme.

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Are you looking for breadth or depth? I suppose you could choose both, but that might be a bit time consuming... –  Webs961 Aug 9 '11 at 23:35
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5 Answers

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Computer Science courses obviously vary from university to university, but generally speaking they don't focus too much on languages. Learning a bunch of different languages may help you find a job, but won't teach you much about algorithms, the theory of computation, artificial intelligence, compilers, and the other subjects university courses cover.

MIT Open CourseWare would be worth looking at. It might also be worth your time to look through your local university's website and see exactly what courses and subjects are taught, and what textbooks are required.

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MIT OpenCourseware isn't really that great for computer science, at least not if you want the video tutorials - excellent in general, but not specifically for computer science. The algorithms course is excellent, but you may need some math from elsewhere first. Also, automata theory is extremely important - there's a course (6.045J) but no lecture videos. –  Steve314 Aug 10 '11 at 5:49
    
Also see.stanford.edu/see/courses.aspx - again, the "computer science" is mostly programming, but there's still a lot there - probably a lot more practical than "real" computer science too. Also cise.ufl.edu/~sahni/cop5536 (Advanced Data Structures course). –  Steve314 Aug 10 '11 at 6:03
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Most colleges have this kind of information online these days. Look at the required courses and electives in the CS programs at a few schools, and then synthesize something that meets your interests.

Some schools (e.g., MIT) have a lot of their courseware online. Watching recorded lectures might suit you better than just reading the textbooks.

Definitely make sure you get the textbooks and work through the assignments. It will give you a much deeper understanding than just hearing or reading the material.

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algebra:

programming: - structured programming - object oriented programming - data structures and algorithms (qs, lists, trees, indexes, quicksort, dijkstra, etc...)

data bases: - relational - non relational

os: - linux fundamentals

software engineering:

electronics and phisics: may be optional - digital systems - automated systems (VHDL) - basic phisics on diodes and transistors, Op Amp

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Much of the computer science curricula leaves you with "programming literacy". Here are the classes I remember that build on top of that:

  • Operating Systems: Mostly covering threading and the low level interlock code necessary to make it work. We implemented out own "green" threads on top of some solaris primitives.
  • Compiler Construction: Lexing and Parsing; We built a non-optimizing compiler for a C-like language.
  • Fundamental Algorithms: Sorting and Searching; Divide and Conquer; Balanced Trees; Big-O Notation; Graphs
  • Discrete Math: This is a post-algebra course that isn't calculus. Basically essential to understand what the heck is going on in...
  • Computability Theory: Regular Languages; Finite-state automata; Turing machines; Proofs.

(There were also a bunch of electives that were "learn a technology; build something in it." Graphics, AI, and Networking come to mind. These don't really require the courses I've described above.)

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Pick up a book on Discrete Math - I used Rosen and thought it was pretty good.

After that pick up Sipser's Introduction to the Theory of Computation, which in my opinon may be the most readable book on Computer Science ever.

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