Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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-4
votes
0answers
28 views

Machine Programming [on hold]

I am so much interested in knowing machine programming. For example making an application that can sense and record temperature, or open a gate when clicked on etc. Please direct me on what to sart ...
-2
votes
0answers
48 views

It is possible to understund the class description only by reading the code source? [on hold]

I will start my question by example; assuming that we have only the content of the Service class of Android platform. Can I understand deeply the class behavior/role just by reading the source code ? ...
-3
votes
0answers
26 views

Text UI strategy game: Which Language/engines? [on hold]

I'm thinking about building a simple 2d strategy game, the likeness of starcraft, except extremely simplified. The main thing I want to do is have a text UI, the kind of thing you see when you ...
-1
votes
0answers
37 views

which route to take for a better career [on hold]

Might be posting in the wrong place, if so, I apologise. So I've been to college and university, and in both I chose as many modules as I could based around Java. I did one module on c++ and ...
-6
votes
0answers
21 views

Where to start: Sortable Databases and APIs [on hold]

First things first, I apologize if this is not the correct forum for me to ask this question. I like to consider myself as tech-savy; I have a general understanding of HTML, PHP, Sql, and CSS. I ...
-5
votes
0answers
61 views

What language this website is written? [on hold]

I came across a website called: http://www.ratemyteachers.com/ and was just curious to find out what language this website is written with, I viewed the source code and it didn't leave any clue to me. ...
-2
votes
0answers
38 views

Career Advice Career Direction [on hold]

I'm trying to decide if my current career focus is a good one or I should seek opportunities elsewhere an was hoping I could get some advice from the Stack Exchange community. I started working for a ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Pass by value result with exceptions [on hold]

I have a doubt with the pass-by-value-result method. As far as I understood, it passess the value of the parameter to the function, and then get the result as the function ends. But what happens with ...
-3
votes
1answer
61 views

How does pass-by-name work in this code? [on hold]

Suppose I have a program like the following: int x = 3 void foo(name int z) { z = 0 int x = 5 } foo(x++) print(x) what is the printed value? When passing by name, I pass the variable x ...
-1
votes
0answers
32 views

int differers in level of indirection from char error [migrated]

The code is from Absolute beginner's guide to C, and I get this error ./BlackJack.c<41> : warning C4047: '==' : 'int' differes in levels of indirection from 'char [2]' when I try to compile it ...
-3
votes
0answers
20 views

camera calibration with known size and distance from flat object [on hold]

I want to calibrate a camera with a flat object that I know the size of and distance from. I also only have one image of it. I want to calibrate the camera so I can find the distance between the ...
-4
votes
0answers
39 views

What is Open Stack? [on hold]

I visited Open Stack's website recently. I did not understand what it is. So if anybody could give me an explanation about what Open Stack is, which language is it written with and if anybody could ...
-4
votes
1answer
71 views

I want to make a program but I'm having difficulties in learning related technology for the project [on hold]

I'm 14 and I love computers & programming. I've been studying programming on my own for about a year. When I first started with studying the C programming language, I studied and practiced very ...
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

Arduino Bluetooth Programming [on hold]

I'm part of a group where we need to make a boat that can do several tasks, and I have been put in charge of programming. I have an Arduino, and it has to control a water pump and a motor that will ...
0
votes
2answers
216 views

Why does Java (and other langs too) have seemingly redundant functions like “str.startsWith(String str, int fromOffset)”?

I was wondering why Java and other programming languages implement (seemingly) redundant functions such as: "foobar".startsWith("bar", 3); // same as "foobar".substring(3).startsWith("bar"); // or ...
-3
votes
1answer
52 views

What are some short examples illustrating usefulness of Racket macros? [closed]

What are some compelling examples of programs you can write using Racket or Scheme macros that cannot be achieved in other languages using higher-order functions?
0
votes
0answers
73 views

difference between generics and interfaces [duplicate]

Are there any advantages of using generic type constraints over an interface? For example: T whatever<T>() where T is IInterface; vs IInterface whatever(); My guess is it's just a ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

Different Implemenations of Tail Call Optimisation

I've heard some people in my university discuss the tail call optimisation in ML as if it were a special version tail call optimisation. Does the ML (SML/F#) implementations of tco in these languages ...
7
votes
5answers
842 views

Why are objects instantiated this way?

Some times I see an object instantiated this way. ICustomer oCustomer = new Customer Obvious but the Customer class is implementing ICustomer interface in this example. Are there any advantages of ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Managing scaffolding for debug vs production builds

The more I program the more I realize that most of my time is spent writing scaffolding for programs so that I can debug them and then strip away the scaffolding for production. The problem is that ...
32
votes
8answers
6k views

Is there a reason to have a bottom type in a programming language?

A bottom type is a construct primarily appearing in mathematical type theory. It is also called the empty type. It is a type that has no values, but is a subtype of all types. If a function's return ...
0
votes
3answers
321 views

How are basic functions implemented in a programming language if they are not built in? [closed]

The lowest levels of a programming language's library functions are always obscure and often have no code that looks like it even remotely does anything. Some languages have these functions like ...
11
votes
2answers
295 views

Is higher-rank parametric polymorphism useful?

I'm pretty sure everyone is familiar with generic methods of the form: T DoSomething<T>(T item) This function is also called parametrically polymorphic (PP), specifically rank-1 PP. Let's ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Looking to increase the speed of my bash script [migrated]

The title pretty much says it all, I have a short bash script that processes gigs and gigs of data. I am looking for any improvements to make it faster. This is my very first bash script so please ...
12
votes
1answer
442 views

Why do you need higher kinds?

Some languages allow for classes and functions with type parameters (such as List<T> where T may be an arbitrary type). For example, you can have a function like: List<S> Function<S, ...
-2
votes
4answers
234 views

Why is there no Swap command? [closed]

In many programming languages, I see programmers always struggle to swap 2 variabeles. Most of the time it costs 3 copies and a temporary variabele to accomplish it. Why do programming language dont ...
8
votes
2answers
500 views

Why did programming languages start using = for assignment?

In most early algorithms books, <- referred to assignment and = referred to comparison. But nowadays the only languages that don't use = for assignment are Pascal (:=) and toy languages like COOL. ...
35
votes
9answers
12k views

Why do schools teach arrays over List? [closed]

Most of the assignments in my school for the initial programming classes required me to use arrays. I work full time now, and I never used an array for any project that I have worked on. Even in the ...
-1
votes
1answer
61 views

What is the easiest way to store a piece of text in an HTML page? [closed]

I'll say in advance - I have almost no experience with HTML. I am currently coding a game in Lua, which needs to access a piece of code from an HTML website using GET. My question is this: What is ...
0
votes
2answers
199 views

Is there any plan to take out “features” from next versions of javascript? [closed]

I'm looking to learn javascript (now for real) and I've had a look on the latest version of ES6 which is supposed to be frozen in terms of features set. It seems to be the pretty much same as ES5 ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

comparison of computer processing language vs protocol

how can explain the diference between programming languge and protocol?, can protocol have extension? we know that machines communicate with protocol, but they can also do so with expressive ...
1
vote
3answers
194 views

Differences between Instruction set (architecture) and machine language?

Tanenbaum's Structured Computer Organization says: Every computer has an ISA (Instruction Set Architecture), which is a set of registers, instructions, and other features visible to its ...
-1
votes
2answers
192 views

Is functional language without runtime written in C possible?

Every functional language that compiles to native code relies on quite big runtime written in C programming language (well at least ones that I know of, for example Haskell, OCaml, Gambit/Chicken ...
-3
votes
1answer
82 views

If I want write a programming language, what I have to know? [closed]

I think about to take this course on coursera: https://www.coursera.org/course/compilers What knowledge I absolutely have to have in order to succeeded in this class? In particularly I'd like to ...
9
votes
7answers
2k views

Does Oracle reap economic benefits by maintaining Java? [closed]

It occurred to me that many programming languages such as Python and Javascript are maintained by non-profit foundations. I can see why a foundation would update a free programming language- in order ...
0
votes
2answers
165 views

How are declarative languages executed by a computer?

I'm getting introduced to declarative languages and am beginning to love them. In particular Haskell, a functional language, is very expressive, easy to debug. But my question has to do with ...
0
votes
2answers
154 views

Embedding extremely basic scripts in application

I need to program a C++ application which will basically work as a script interpreter, but with extremely basic and limited scripts. The scripts will have a format like this: processedA = ...
0
votes
1answer
195 views

Why are language features more popular than compiler design? [closed]

If we had a universal interpreter for all available features of programming languages we could use a specializer to generate compilers for all languages. We could simply use any language as source (or ...
-1
votes
2answers
130 views

Should I learn a programming language that compiles to another? [closed]

For about a year now, I've been doing full stack web development. I am doing about 66% backend stuff (in Python), but from a time to time, I need to write HTML, CSS and JavaScript. I really want to ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

why are the evaluation strategies call-by-value etc. only discussed in the context of function calling?

I am referring to various discussions on the differences and nuances in the semantics of pass-by-value, pass-by-reference, e.g. in SO or in the Wikipedia article on the subject. My question is why do ...
2
votes
2answers
126 views

Should naming conventions be consistent or not across multiple programming languages in one project? [duplicate]

I saw this question on SO: here; the question is kind of old and not many viewed, so I want to ask it again. I currently work on a project using C++, C# and Actionscript-3, the conventions of C++ and ...
2
votes
3answers
372 views

Say I wanted to create a cross platform program that does not require a runtime/VM, am I stuck with C/C++? [closed]

Let's say that I'm a theoretical programmer hunting for a cross platform programming language, what are my options. This language must satisfy this list of requirements: It must not require the user ...
5
votes
4answers
911 views

Is a programming language a set of programs or a set of instructions?

From Structured Computer Organization by Tanenbum A program is a sequence of instructions describing how to perform a certain task. When trying to see a programming language as a formal ...
5
votes
3answers
245 views

Is prototypal inheritance inherently slower?

I see Javascript 6 will add traditional class based inheritance, and one argument I hear is that classes are inherently much faster than prototypes because they can be optimized away by the compiler ...
0
votes
5answers
244 views

Does it matter how I format the name of a function? [closed]

Yes, I know, silly question. But this question has been bugging me for a while, and now I just want to know if it really matters. Basically, I just want to know if it really matters if I format a ...
15
votes
4answers
900 views

What's the tradeoff for type inference?

It seems that all new programming languages or at least the ones that became popular use type inference. Even Javascript got types and type inference though various implementations (Acscript, ...
6
votes
2answers
307 views

What is the difference between Optionals and Nullable type

Swift has Optionals. C# has Nullable types. As far as I can tell both serve same purpose, besides value of some type they store information whether variable has value or is undefined ...
3
votes
2answers
207 views

Software development - The industry & general trends / Bad practices [duplicate]

I am a Web Developer and part of a small team working on an abundance of projects. This is my first "actual" real company after graduating with a degree in computer Science and I have about 2 years ...
20
votes
4answers
1k views

Why would many duck-typed dynamic programming languages use a class-based approach instead of prototype-based OOP?

Since quite many dynamic programming languages have the feature of duck typing, and they can also open up and modify class or instance methods at anytime (like Ruby and Python), then… Question 1) ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

Statistics about the usage of programming paradigms [closed]

I hear very often that the object-oriented programming paradigm is the most widespread. But are there any scientific statistics about how often other programming paradigms like procedural programming ...