Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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2
votes
2answers
477 views

What is the difference between if('' == $variable) and if($variable == '') [duplicate]

While using an 'if' statement to check whether a variable is an empty string or not we can write it in two ways i.e. if('' == $variable) and if($variable == ''). I want to know what is the impact of ...
-3
votes
0answers
52 views

Question about the “option” brackets in EBNF (Extended Backus–Naur Form) [on hold]

I want to know what this expression: A-->a[b]A means. I know the [] means b is an option, but does that mean that if I convert it to the BNF it would be: 1-A-->aA|bA or 2-A-->aA|abA?
-2
votes
1answer
41 views

Improving on data structures skills for working professionals [on hold]

I am java developer, I have 6 years experience. I have completed my mechanical engineering. I have sound knowledge on java, but one of my friend who started his engineering with Computer science he ...
-3
votes
0answers
8 views

incorrect output for set input [migrated]

So I almost have this code correct but it's not giving me the correct output for some reason and I can't figure out why. This is what I have. That is what I have so far but I need the output to be ...
0
votes
1answer
104 views

Static typing vs. dynamic typing [on hold]

I'm developing my own programming language in my spare time as a hobby. It's an interpreted language. Currently the syntax for variables is this: %<variable> = <value> Here are some ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

What are factors to take into consideration in choosing a programming language/paradigm for a rule-based natural-language translation program?

I have experience with object-oriented programming languages (C++ and Java), but I am wondering what kinds of programming languages — including OOP languages– or programming paradigms might be ...
0
votes
2answers
110 views

Finding metrics for development time in different languages [on hold]

I'm trying to determine if a language I'm investigating (Groovy) is better for developing enterprise applications than our current language (Java). Specifically I'm trying to figure out if it will ...
3
votes
2answers
98 views

What is the extent of programming language localization dialects?

Apple's scripting language AppleScript was designed with localization in mind; allowing the language to be represented in multiple dialects resembling languages from around the world. In this way, ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

How can I run external code from Squeak environment? [migrated]

As far as I know, the Squeak environment is quite isolated from the rest of the operating system. However, I'm looking for a way to execute external code, which will be written in a different ...
2
votes
3answers
131 views

Find all possible subarrays of an Array

I am lost I just can't seem to get my head around backtracking/recursion approaches. I understand how simple recursion problems like factorials work I can even trace those by hand. But when it comes ...
0
votes
3answers
188 views

How should I “dig deeper” as a web developer? [closed]

I am currently a full-stack web developer working mainly in Ruby/Rails/Javascript. The languages I use on a daily basis (ruby, css, javascript, php) are great, but they are very dynamic, high level ...
-1
votes
0answers
15 views

Capturing window the GDI way, question about SaveCapturedBitmap(); [closed]

I want to make a program that takes a screenshot of the desktop window including overlapping windows and then scans the bitmap for certain pixels at specific locations to identify. I read this is how ...
1
vote
2answers
120 views

How to abide the “allocate in caller” rule when the size is computed in the callee?

Let's say we have an opaque type handle_t that is managed through a simple interface with functions such as: handle_t *handle_init(void); int handle_do(handle_t *); void handle_free(handle_t *); ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Java for loop: why can't I declare two variables in the for loop 'header'? [migrated]

I always wondered, why doesn't this compile? for(int i=0, int q=0; i<a.length; i++){ ... } Why doesn't Java allow me to declare more than one variable in the for loop 'header'? Is there a ...
6
votes
2answers
319 views

In layman's terms, what is left recursion?

According to one page on code.google.com, "left recursion" is defined as follows: Left recursion just refers to any recursive nonterminal that, when it produces a sentential form containing ...
2
votes
2answers
164 views

What properties does an object oriented language have? [closed]

I'm currently working on a game and wanted to add some scripting support. Due to trying to keep the entire codebase in managed c# (Excluding Monogame), I am using a custom language for the scripting ...
2
votes
4answers
479 views

Why aren't we building and using parallel processors *meant* for general computation?

We all know GPUs are much faster than CPUs for a wide range of applications. When someone asks why we are not just programming for GPUs at all, one of the most common answers is that GPUs are not good ...
3
votes
7answers
180 views

What if any languages treat undisposed resources as an error?

I've seen lots of code like the following example. It's in Python, but the same mistake is made in all languages with managed resources: f = open('foo.txt', 'rb') for line in f: print line That's ...
-7
votes
0answers
34 views

How to store pdf files to MySQL and then list, open them using C# [duplicate]

I'm creating a c# employee management system app, I've created a form for Employee files and I don't have any idea how to store pdf files to mysql and then list and open them with c#.
21
votes
5answers
1k views

What specifically does expressive power refer to?

Expressive Power is defined by Wikipedia as: .. the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in that language. Does "ideas" refer to the things (operations, structures, ...
1
vote
3answers
299 views

From a technical point of view, could JavaScript be compiled instead of interpreted?

The question title speaks for itself. I'm specifically thinking in terms of a Node.js server. Additionally, this question is assuming that you don't need eval(). Also, if this is not possible, why ...
4
votes
4answers
595 views

How does Python compile some its code in C?

I read that some constructs of Python are more efficient because they are compiled in C. https://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonSpeed/PerformanceTips Some of the examples used were map() and filter(). I ...
-2
votes
0answers
48 views

Languages on embedded systems in aeronautic and spatial sector

I know that my question is very broad but a general answer would be nice. I would like to know which are the main languages used in aeronautic and spatial sector. I know that the OS which run on ...
2
votes
5answers
253 views

Do first-class methods exist?

Okay, I know first-class functions are cool, closures even better, etc. But is there any language with first-class methods? In my mind, I see a first-class method as an "object" that has both a ...
1
vote
2answers
154 views

If there's no problem treating a statement as an expression, why was there a distinction in the first place in some programming languages? [duplicate]

Why do we have the distinction between statements and expressions in most programming languages? For example, in Java, assuming f and g return ints, this still won't compile because it's a statement ...
1
vote
4answers
127 views

What would you call the concept of CofeeScript or Sass to be? [duplicate]

There is this rising trend with web development of making new pseudo languages to extend the functionality of JavaScript, CSS and HTML given that those are static and their metamorphosis or evolution ...
32
votes
5answers
2k views

What does “context-free” mean in the term “context-free grammar”?

Given the amount of material that tries to explain what a context-free grammar (CFG) is, I found it surprising that very few (in my sample, less than 1 in 20) give an explanation on why such grammars ...
1
vote
2answers
195 views

How do you guard against hidden overflows

consider the following: (i+j)/2 i and j are both 32 bit integers and the result should also be. But in the little equation, there's a hidden overflow, i+j could become larger then a 32 bit integer ...
1
vote
3answers
69 views

Property-level value transformation for indirect object casting

Does any programming language exist to support the explicit, property-level object copy? For example, assume this code: public class Student { public string Name { get; set; } public ...
1
vote
1answer
139 views

Hardware-control on one computer. But how about several?

For a while I have been pondering the question of, given a standard interface specification, whether there is a way to allow multiple programs to control multiple hardware devices across the network. ...
-3
votes
1answer
302 views

Why is the JavaScript-language different in different programs/sites? [closed]

I'm kind of new to programming and i have a question that's been bothering me for awhile. Why is the JavaScript-language different in different programs/sites. I've used Codecademy to practice and ...
5
votes
1answer
166 views

How should I recursively process a file in Haskell?

Basically I'm expanding a literate program in Haskell. There are two things I need to look for to expand. Here's an example file: program.c.lit: ============== Some comments in the source file that I ...
4
votes
4answers
311 views

Which language introduced the idea of private (hidden) variables? [duplicate]

I know C++ had private variables inside classes, and Java, C#, Javascript, and others picked up on that and ran with it. Aside from variable scope, most languages before that just made everything ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

what is a language specification?

Either I am being a total n00b or just not with it today but I have been reading a few blogs lately and they talk about language specs. What actually is a language spec? Is php.net a language spec? ...
5
votes
3answers
250 views

Declaring variables in Python and PHP

The question is how to cope with absence of variable declaration in Python, PHP, and the like. In most languages there is a way to let the compiler know whether I introduce a new variable or refer to ...
11
votes
11answers
3k views

Can a closed-source programming language survive? [closed]

A friend has written a programming language. It has a syntax reminiscent of SGML. He has written an interpreter for it, and an IDE. He and his colleagues use it in-house as a server-side language. It ...
3
votes
5answers
861 views

Does this kind of programming language exist?

I'm thinking about creating my own pet programming language, and I have been wondering if similar language already exists. The basic idea is that the language itself would be dynamically typed with ...
6
votes
7answers
691 views

Why isn't there a next operation on enums?

In most popular programming languages like Java and C# there is a way to define enums, which are essentially datatypes with a fixed set of values, e.g. DayOfWeek. The problem is, given a value, e.g. ...
28
votes
5answers
3k views

Why do some functional programming languages use a space for function application?

Having looked at some languages for functional programming, I always wondered why some fp-languages use one or more whitespace characters for function application (and definition), whereas most (all?) ...
1
vote
2answers
131 views

Can a version of Python's shelve module that knows when its entries have been modified be written in any programming language?

shelve is a Python module that makes it easy to persist a Python dictionary to disk (under the right conditions). The documentation for shelve gives this example to demonstrate one of the pitfalls of ...
28
votes
6answers
3k views

Why isn't testing a language a supported feature at the syntax level?

You can find an endless list of blogs, articles and websites promoting the benefits of unit testing your source code. It's almost guaranteed that the developers who programmed the compilers for Java, ...
4
votes
1answer
325 views

How do programming languages integrate with OS runtimes

For example, Objective-C, Swift and Ruby (i.e. RubyMotion) integrate with the Cocoa framework. Is this done via linked libraries? I assume they call functions in existing binaries instead of simply ...
0
votes
3answers
166 views

is there any language that supports automatic evaluation of input expressions?

I'm wondering if anyone knows of a language that supports automatic-evaluation. (not sure this is the right term. so let me describe what I mean below) For example, a program asks for an int as its ...
2
votes
2answers
284 views

What are the benefits of learning an old programming language? [duplicate]

I plan to learn programming languages like C and AWK since a lot of people said that what I will learn in C can be applied to a lot of modern programming languages and I plan to learn AWK because I ...
-1
votes
2answers
180 views

Is PHP the only popular language that mixes simple and associative arrays into a single type? [closed]

I'm doing a research on PHP and wondering if there any other commonly used programming langues that use an associative array for both simple indexed element storage and key-value functionality. Does ...
1
vote
2answers
281 views

is JS a gradually typed language?

I was researching on statically typed and dynamically typed concepts and found out there is another type system called gradually typed. From wikipedia Gradual typing is a type system in which ...
-1
votes
1answer
160 views

All programming functions always return to the If or If/Else statement? [closed]

After learning, coding, and coding even more than ever now, I have noticed a trend in a lot of programming which I do. The trend is that the majority of my functions are if{} or if{} else{} statements ...
11
votes
5answers
990 views

Is it beneficial to study past the basics of a core language when the primary goal is to rely on its framework? [closed]

Please keep in mind this is not another 'How much [insert programming language here] should I know before moving onto [insert framework here]?' What I'd like to know is how beneficial is it to learn ...
0
votes
3answers
168 views

How to get an image or rectangle to detect collision with another image

Can someone please explain to me how to detect collision with another image? The tutorial I was watching explained how to detect if a collision occurs between two rectangles but I would like to use ...
-3
votes
3answers
159 views

Determine Programming Language Used for Project Based on Source Code

Is there an easy way to determine which programming languages were used in a project assuming you have access to the source code? I have been programming for quite some time, so I can recognize most ...