Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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2
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2answers
177 views

What properties does an object oriented language have? [closed]

I'm currently working on a game and wanted to add some scripting support. Due to trying to keep the entire codebase in managed c# (Excluding Monogame), I am using a custom language for the scripting ...
2
votes
4answers
509 views

Why aren't we building and using parallel processors *meant* for general computation?

We all know GPUs are much faster than CPUs for a wide range of applications. When someone asks why we are not just programming for GPUs at all, one of the most common answers is that GPUs are not good ...
3
votes
7answers
194 views

What if any languages treat undisposed resources as an error?

I've seen lots of code like the following example. It's in Python, but the same mistake is made in all languages with managed resources: f = open('foo.txt', 'rb') for line in f: print line That's ...
22
votes
5answers
1k views

What specifically does expressive power refer to?

Expressive Power is defined by Wikipedia as: .. the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in that language. Does "ideas" refer to the things (operations, structures, ...
1
vote
3answers
323 views

From a technical point of view, could JavaScript be compiled instead of interpreted?

The question title speaks for itself. I'm specifically thinking in terms of a Node.js server. Additionally, this question is assuming that you don't need eval(). Also, if this is not possible, why ...
4
votes
4answers
707 views

How does Python compile some its code in C?

I read that some constructs of Python are more efficient because they are compiled in C. https://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonSpeed/PerformanceTips Some of the examples used were map() and filter(). I ...
2
votes
5answers
263 views

Do first-class methods exist?

Okay, I know first-class functions are cool, closures even better, etc. But is there any language with first-class methods? In my mind, I see a first-class method as an "object" that has both a ...
1
vote
2answers
164 views

If there's no problem treating a statement as an expression, why was there a distinction in the first place in some programming languages? [duplicate]

Why do we have the distinction between statements and expressions in most programming languages? For example, in Java, assuming f and g return ints, this still won't compile because it's a statement ...
1
vote
4answers
172 views

What would you call the concept of CofeeScript or Sass to be? [duplicate]

There is this rising trend with web development of making new pseudo languages to extend the functionality of JavaScript, CSS and HTML given that those are static and their metamorphosis or evolution ...
31
votes
5answers
2k views

What does “context-free” mean in the term “context-free grammar”?

Given the amount of material that tries to explain what a context-free grammar (CFG) is, I found it surprising that very few (in my sample, less than 1 in 20) give an explanation on why such grammars ...
1
vote
2answers
204 views

How do you guard against hidden overflows

consider the following: (i+j)/2 i and j are both 32 bit integers and the result should also be. But in the little equation, there's a hidden overflow, i+j could become larger then a 32 bit integer ...
1
vote
3answers
78 views

Property-level value transformation for indirect object casting

Does any programming language exist to support the explicit, property-level object copy? For example, assume this code: public class Student { public string Name { get; set; } public ...
1
vote
1answer
145 views

Hardware-control on one computer. But how about several?

For a while I have been pondering the question of, given a standard interface specification, whether there is a way to allow multiple programs to control multiple hardware devices across the network. ...
-3
votes
1answer
324 views

Why is the JavaScript-language different in different programs/sites? [closed]

I'm kind of new to programming and i have a question that's been bothering me for awhile. Why is the JavaScript-language different in different programs/sites. I've used Codecademy to practice and ...
4
votes
1answer
178 views

How should I recursively process a file in Haskell?

Basically I'm expanding a literate program in Haskell. There are two things I need to look for to expand. Here's an example file: program.c.lit: ============== Some comments in the source file that I ...
4
votes
4answers
320 views

Which language introduced the idea of private (hidden) variables? [duplicate]

I know C++ had private variables inside classes, and Java, C#, Javascript, and others picked up on that and ran with it. Aside from variable scope, most languages before that just made everything ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

what is a language specification?

Either I am being a total n00b or just not with it today but I have been reading a few blogs lately and they talk about language specs. What actually is a language spec? Is php.net a language spec? ...
5
votes
3answers
295 views

Declaring variables in Python and PHP

The question is how to cope with absence of variable declaration in Python, PHP, and the like. In most languages there is a way to let the compiler know whether I introduce a new variable or refer to ...
11
votes
11answers
3k views

Can a closed-source programming language survive? [closed]

A friend has written a programming language. It has a syntax reminiscent of SGML. He has written an interpreter for it, and an IDE. He and his colleagues use it in-house as a server-side language. It ...
4
votes
5answers
905 views

Does this kind of programming language exist?

I'm thinking about creating my own pet programming language, and I have been wondering if similar language already exists. The basic idea is that the language itself would be dynamically typed with ...
6
votes
7answers
742 views

Why isn't there a next operation on enums?

In most popular programming languages like Java and C# there is a way to define enums, which are essentially datatypes with a fixed set of values, e.g. DayOfWeek. The problem is, given a value, e.g. ...
30
votes
5answers
3k views

Why do some functional programming languages use a space for function application?

Having looked at some languages for functional programming, I always wondered why some fp-languages use one or more whitespace characters for function application (and definition), whereas most (all?) ...
1
vote
2answers
162 views

Can a version of Python's shelve module that knows when its entries have been modified be written in any programming language?

shelve is a Python module that makes it easy to persist a Python dictionary to disk (under the right conditions). The documentation for shelve gives this example to demonstrate one of the pitfalls of ...
30
votes
6answers
3k views

Why isn't testing a language a supported feature at the syntax level?

You can find an endless list of blogs, articles and websites promoting the benefits of unit testing your source code. It's almost guaranteed that the developers who programmed the compilers for Java, ...
4
votes
1answer
335 views

How do programming languages integrate with OS runtimes

For example, Objective-C, Swift and Ruby (i.e. RubyMotion) integrate with the Cocoa framework. Is this done via linked libraries? I assume they call functions in existing binaries instead of simply ...
0
votes
3answers
166 views

is there any language that supports automatic evaluation of input expressions?

I'm wondering if anyone knows of a language that supports automatic-evaluation. (not sure this is the right term. so let me describe what I mean below) For example, a program asks for an int as its ...
2
votes
2answers
418 views

What are the benefits of learning an old programming language? [duplicate]

I plan to learn programming languages like C and AWK since a lot of people said that what I will learn in C can be applied to a lot of modern programming languages and I plan to learn AWK because I ...
0
votes
2answers
185 views

Is PHP the only popular language that mixes simple and associative arrays into a single type? [closed]

I'm doing a research on PHP and wondering if there any other commonly used programming langues that use an associative array for both simple indexed element storage and key-value functionality. Does ...
1
vote
2answers
294 views

is JS a gradually typed language?

I was researching on statically typed and dynamically typed concepts and found out there is another type system called gradually typed. From wikipedia Gradual typing is a type system in which ...
-1
votes
1answer
168 views

All programming functions always return to the If or If/Else statement? [closed]

After learning, coding, and coding even more than ever now, I have noticed a trend in a lot of programming which I do. The trend is that the majority of my functions are if{} or if{} else{} statements ...
11
votes
5answers
1k views

Is it beneficial to study past the basics of a core language when the primary goal is to rely on its framework? [closed]

Please keep in mind this is not another 'How much [insert programming language here] should I know before moving onto [insert framework here]?' What I'd like to know is how beneficial is it to learn ...
0
votes
3answers
202 views

How to get an image or rectangle to detect collision with another image

Can someone please explain to me how to detect collision with another image? The tutorial I was watching explained how to detect if a collision occurs between two rectangles but I would like to use ...
-3
votes
3answers
201 views

Determine Programming Language Used for Project Based on Source Code

Is there an easy way to determine which programming languages were used in a project assuming you have access to the source code? I have been programming for quite some time, so I can recognize most ...
2
votes
1answer
447 views

Why are most functional programming languages also interpreted languages?

Functional/non-functional and interpreted/compiled are two different categorizations, yet it seems that there are a lot of overlaps in the programming languages that fall under those categories. Is ...
2
votes
1answer
215 views

High-level description of how experimental C++ features are developed?

Herb Sutter in a video answers a question about the concepts proposal considered for C++11 and from his remarks it sounds like multiple groups offered prototype implementations but all of them left ...
5
votes
1answer
492 views

Is there an imperative language with a Haskell-like type system? [closed]

I've tried to learn Haskell a few times over the last few years, and, maybe because I know mainly scripting languages, the functional-ness of it has always bothered me (monads seem like a huge mess ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

How do references work in R?

I'm finding R confusing because it has such a different notion of reference than I am used to in languages like C, Java, Javascript... Ruby, Python, C++, well, pretty much any language I have ever ...
1
vote
1answer
190 views

Object-Oriented equivalent of LISP's progn function?

I'm currently writing a LISP parser that iterates through some AutoLISP code and does its best to make it a little easier to read (changing prefix notation to infix notation, changing setq assignments ...
-3
votes
1answer
101 views

How to make a non-english clone of CoffeeScript? [closed]

I want to make a non-english programming language that is identical to what CoffeeScript is to JavaScript. What I mean is that I don't want to build my own design or syntax. Just want to have a ...
3
votes
5answers
566 views

Should sanity be a property of a programmer or a program? [closed]

I design and implement languages, that can range from object notations to markup languages. In many cases I have considered restrictions in favor of sanity (common knowledge), like in the case of ...
0
votes
3answers
157 views

How to diagram custom programming languages, non textual?

I've used and created domain-specific languages before, plenty of times (e.g. using yacc/lex). Normally we'd start with grammar written in BNF, and a bunch of keywords. This is easy to do, easy to ...
12
votes
3answers
4k views

Programming Language vs Markup Language vs Scripting Language

Up until now I don't know the KEY differences between these three. When someone asks me about this, I only tell them that C# is a programming language, HTML and XML are Markup Languages, and ...
4
votes
0answers
81 views

How significant is the impact of the type system (static/dynamic) on the overall design of programs? [duplicate]

Coming from Java, I've never used a language with dynamic typing. I'm very used to the static-typing way of thinking. My question is, how much does the use of dynamic typing as opposed to static ...
0
votes
1answer
146 views

How do programming language translators work? [closed]

I'm a programmer and I'm looking to play around with translating one language to another. Say C# to Lua. I'm curious as to how translating languages like that works? I would think there is some kind ...
13
votes
5answers
1k views

Dealing with not knowing parameter names of a function when you're calling it

Here's a programming/language problem I'd like to hear your thoughts on. We have developed conventions that most programmers (should) follow that aren't a part of the languages syntax but serve to ...
28
votes
2answers
1k views

First ATMs programming language

First ATMs performed tasks like a cash dispenser, they were offline machines which worked with punch cards impregnated with Carbon and a 6-digit PIN code. Maximum withdrawal with a card was 10 pounds ...
2
votes
1answer
239 views

What language do companies like NASA use to create their applications? [duplicate]

So obviously NASA need programmers to develop applications for them, be it VOIP applications, applications for control of machines and AI, etc. But in what language do they actually use for this? ...
1
vote
1answer
159 views

What is the most efficient method in converting AutoLISP legacy code to C#?

I am engaged in a project that works mainly in AutoCAD to design and manufacture prefabricated building components such as roofing trusses. One of our goals is to redesign a program that was written ...
1
vote
2answers
194 views

Lexer/Parser for multidimensional Languages

How does Lexer/Parser work in a 2D programming language like Funciton in order to transform such an unusual source-code to the correct AST?
3
votes
3answers
697 views

Standardized Programming Languages

Is there an organization similar to W3C that creates standards for programming languages? If so, are there any programming languages, like browsers would using W3C standards, that implement these ...