Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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3
votes
2answers
435 views

Are there any OO languages without inheritance?

During a code review today, a colleague of mine said something interesting: prototype is only useful when you need inheritance - and when's inheritance ever a good idea? I thought about this and ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views
6
votes
4answers
798 views

When does it make sense to compile my own language to C code first?

When designing an own programming language, when does it make sense to write a converter that takes the source code and converts it to C or C++ code so that I can use an existing compiler like gcc to ...
1
vote
1answer
270 views

Which programming language first came up with the finally block?

Which programming language first came up with the finally block? I ask purely out of curiosity. It is a very useful piece of syntactic sugar, and whoever first created it surely has a very ...
19
votes
5answers
2k views

Why is type inference useful?

I read code way more often than I write code, and I'm assuming that most of the programmers working on industrial software do this. The advantage of type inference I assume is less verbosity and less ...
8
votes
5answers
635 views

Are there programming languages that allow you to do set arithmetic on types?

Out of curiosity, are there languages that allow you to do set arithmetic on types to create new types? Something like: interface A { void a(); void b(); } interface B { void b(); void ...
2
votes
1answer
308 views

Do compilers un-inline recurrent expressions?

Does a compiler look for recurrent expressions to convert it into 'function' to reduce binary size and improve performance? Of course, the obvious answer might be "some do it, some don't", so I ask ...
1
vote
4answers
174 views

What would you call the concept of CofeeScript or Sass to be? [duplicate]

There is this rising trend with web development of making new pseudo languages to extend the functionality of JavaScript, CSS and HTML given that those are static and their metamorphosis or evolution ...
43
votes
9answers
14k views

Why is String immutable in Java?

I couldn't understand the reason of it. I always use String class like other developers, but when I modify the value of it, I need to create new instance of String. What might be the reason of ...
54
votes
10answers
18k views

Why has C prevailed over Pascal? [closed]

My understanding is that in the 1980s, and perhaps in the 1990s too, Pascal and C were pretty much head-to-head as production languages. Is the ultimate demise of Pascal only due to Borland's neglect ...
8
votes
7answers
323 views

How does a variable introduce state?

I was reading the "C++ Coding Standards" and this line was there: Variables introduce state, and you should have to deal with as little state as possible, with lifetimes as short as possible. ...
6
votes
2answers
425 views

In layman's terms, what is left recursion?

According to one page on code.google.com, "left recursion" is defined as follows: Left recursion just refers to any recursive nonterminal that, when it produces a sentential form containing ...
2
votes
2answers
543 views

What is the difference between if('' == $variable) and if($variable == '') [duplicate]

While using an 'if' statement to check whether a variable is an empty string or not we can write it in two ways i.e. if('' == $variable) and if($variable == ''). I want to know what is the impact of ...
0
votes
2answers
128 views

Finding metrics for development time in different languages [closed]

I'm trying to determine if a language I'm investigating (Groovy) is better for developing enterprise applications than our current language (Java). Specifically I'm trying to figure out if it will ...
0
votes
1answer
335 views

Static typing vs. dynamic typing [closed]

I'm developing my own programming language in my spare time as a hobby. It's an interpreted language. Currently the syntax for variables is this: %<variable> = <value> Here are some ...
0
votes
1answer
126 views

What are factors to take into consideration in choosing a programming language/paradigm for a rule-based natural-language translation program?

I have experience with object-oriented programming languages (C++ and Java), but I am wondering what kinds of programming languages — including OOP languages– or programming paradigms might be ...
3
votes
2answers
141 views

What is the extent of programming language localization dialects?

Apple's scripting language AppleScript was designed with localization in mind; allowing the language to be represented in multiple dialects resembling languages from around the world. In this way, ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

Find all possible subarrays of an Array

I am lost I just can't seem to get my head around backtracking/recursion approaches. I understand how simple recursion problems like factorials work I can even trace those by hand. But when it comes ...
17
votes
8answers
4k views

If one is to learn a new programming language each year, what should the list be? [closed]

In chapter one of "The Pragmatic Programmer" the first learning goal is: Learn at least one new language every year. Different languages solve the same problems in different ways. By learning ...
0
votes
3answers
304 views

How should I “dig deeper” as a web developer? [closed]

I am currently a full-stack web developer working mainly in Ruby/Rails/Javascript. The languages I use on a daily basis (ruby, css, javascript, php) are great, but they are very dynamic, high level ...
2
votes
4answers
527 views

Why aren't we building and using parallel processors *meant* for general computation?

We all know GPUs are much faster than CPUs for a wide range of applications. When someone asks why we are not just programming for GPUs at all, one of the most common answers is that GPUs are not good ...
2
votes
2answers
184 views

What properties does an object oriented language have? [closed]

I'm currently working on a game and wanted to add some scripting support. Due to trying to keep the entire codebase in managed c# (Excluding Monogame), I am using a custom language for the scripting ...
14
votes
4answers
9k views

Why were default and static methods added to interfaces in Java 8 when we already had abstract classes?

In Java 8, interfaces can contain implemented methods, static methods, and the so-called "default" methods (which the implementing classes do not need to override). In my (probably naive) view, there ...
22
votes
5answers
1k views

What specifically does expressive power refer to?

Expressive Power is defined by Wikipedia as: .. the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in that language. Does "ideas" refer to the things (operations, structures, ...
3
votes
7answers
200 views

What if any languages treat undisposed resources as an error?

I've seen lots of code like the following example. It's in Python, but the same mistake is made in all languages with managed resources: f = open('foo.txt', 'rb') for line in f: print line That's ...
1
vote
3answers
343 views

From a technical point of view, could JavaScript be compiled instead of interpreted?

The question title speaks for itself. I'm specifically thinking in terms of a Node.js server. Additionally, this question is assuming that you don't need eval(). Also, if this is not possible, why ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the Mercury Programming Language used in the field?

I've strong interests in Functional and Logic programming and Mercury seems like a good blend of the two. Is it used in industry at all? I'm one to learn a language just for the fun of it but it would ...
3
votes
7answers
540 views

How to choose a language, when taking in account the community it includes?

I was reading the following article: Great Hackers The following part grabbed my attention: "When you choose a language, you're also choosing a community. The programmers you'll be able to hire ...
4
votes
4answers
961 views

How does Python compile some its code in C?

I read that some constructs of Python are more efficient because they are compiled in C. https://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonSpeed/PerformanceTips Some of the examples used were map() and filter(). I ...
2
votes
5answers
266 views

Do first-class methods exist?

Okay, I know first-class functions are cool, closures even better, etc. But is there any language with first-class methods? In my mind, I see a first-class method as an "object" that has both a ...
1
vote
2answers
167 views

If there's no problem treating a statement as an expression, why was there a distinction in the first place in some programming languages? [duplicate]

Why do we have the distinction between statements and expressions in most programming languages? For example, in Java, assuming f and g return ints, this still won't compile because it's a statement ...
10
votes
8answers
8k views

Why does C dominate in the embedded software market? [closed]

Almost everyone will now say the blessing: performance! Okay, C does allow to write athletic code. But there are other languages that can do so, after all! And the optimising power of modern ...
47
votes
14answers
5k views

Keep a programming language backwards compatible vs. fixing its flaws

First, some context (stuff that most of you know anyway): Every popular programming language has a clear evolution, most of the time marked by its version: you have Java 5, 6, 7 etc., PHP 5.1, 5.2, ...
32
votes
5answers
2k views

What does “context-free” mean in the term “context-free grammar”?

Given the amount of material that tries to explain what a context-free grammar (CFG) is, I found it surprising that very few (in my sample, less than 1 in 20) give an explanation on why such grammars ...
37
votes
22answers
3k views

Has whitespace in identifiers ever been idiomatic? [closed]

C# style suggests using CamelCase in identifiers to delimit words. Lisp tradition suggests using-dashes-instead. Has there ever existed a programming language where using spaces in identifiers was ...
1
vote
3answers
84 views

Property-level value transformation for indirect object casting

Does any programming language exist to support the explicit, property-level object copy? For example, assume this code: public class Student { public string Name { get; set; } public ...
1
vote
2answers
207 views

How do you guard against hidden overflows

consider the following: (i+j)/2 i and j are both 32 bit integers and the result should also be. But in the little equation, there's a hidden overflow, i+j could become larger then a 32 bit integer ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

Hardware-control on one computer. But how about several?

For a while I have been pondering the question of, given a standard interface specification, whether there is a way to allow multiple programs to control multiple hardware devices across the network. ...
25
votes
6answers
11k views

Programming language usage at Google [closed]

I have heard Google uses Python, Java and C++. But what I don't know is how is each of those programming language is used. I mean what is Python, Java and C++ is used for at Google. Why would they ...
-3
votes
1answer
339 views

Why is the JavaScript-language different in different programs/sites? [closed]

I'm kind of new to programming and i have a question that's been bothering me for awhile. Why is the JavaScript-language different in different programs/sites. I've used Codecademy to practice and ...
4
votes
1answer
181 views

How should I recursively process a file in Haskell?

Basically I'm expanding a literate program in Haskell. There are two things I need to look for to expand. Here's an example file: program.c.lit: ============== Some comments in the source file that I ...
4
votes
4answers
334 views

Which language introduced the idea of private (hidden) variables? [duplicate]

I know C++ had private variables inside classes, and Java, C#, Javascript, and others picked up on that and ran with it. Aside from variable scope, most languages before that just made everything ...
6
votes
6answers
9k views

Which language is best for OpenGL? [closed]

I have the following list of languages: C++ C# VB.Net D Delphi Euphoria GLUT Java Power Basic Python REALbasic Visual Basic I would like to know what people think is the: Best (most efficient) ...
6
votes
4answers
987 views

Writing a new programming language - when and how to bootstrap datastructures?

I'm in the process of writing my own programming language which, thus far, has been going great in terms of what I set out to accomplish. However, now, I'd like to bootstrap some pre-existing data ...
1
vote
1answer
129 views

what is a language specification?

Either I am being a total n00b or just not with it today but I have been reading a few blogs lately and they talk about language specs. What actually is a language spec? Is php.net a language spec? ...
5
votes
3answers
328 views

Declaring variables in Python and PHP

The question is how to cope with absence of variable declaration in Python, PHP, and the like. In most languages there is a way to let the compiler know whether I introduce a new variable or refer to ...
11
votes
10answers
3k views

Can a closed-source programming language survive? [closed]

A friend has written a programming language. It has a syntax reminiscent of SGML. He has written an interpreter for it, and an IDE. He and his colleagues use it in-house as a server-side language. It ...
2
votes
3answers
328 views

Choosing language to write general library in

I'm about to start writing a library to support machine learning algorithms (decision trees, ANNs, Bayes nets, etc.), and I'm planning on making this a very general library. By this, I mean I want to ...
2
votes
4answers
323 views

Practice programming guidance [closed]

I am a recent graduate so I understand a lot of the theory, object-oriented languages, and various data structures. I am competent in languages such as C++, Java, PHP, just to name the ones I'm ...
5
votes
5answers
1k views

What negative consequences can arise from this language design rule?

Clarification: the rule is meant to prevent accessing variables that are not declared yet. Clarification 2: the rule mandates that the compiler follows calls to functions which are defined in the ...