Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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13
votes
1answer
534 views

Why do you need higher kinds?

Some languages allow for classes and functions with type parameters (such as List<T> where T may be an arbitrary type). For example, you can have a function like: List<S> Function<S, ...
-2
votes
4answers
259 views

Why is there no Swap command? [closed]

In many programming languages, I see programmers always struggle to swap 2 variabeles. Most of the time it costs 3 copies and a temporary variabele to accomplish it. Why do programming language dont ...
9
votes
2answers
784 views

Why did programming languages start using = for assignment?

In most early algorithms books, <- referred to assignment and = referred to comparison. But nowadays the only languages that don't use = for assignment are Pascal (:=) and toy languages like COOL. ...
35
votes
9answers
13k views

Why do schools teach arrays over List? [closed]

Most of the assignments in my school for the initial programming classes required me to use arrays. I work full time now, and I never used an array for any project that I have worked on. Even in the ...
0
votes
2answers
214 views

Is there any plan to take out “features” from next versions of javascript? [closed]

I'm looking to learn javascript (now for real) and I've had a look on the latest version of ES6 which is supposed to be frozen in terms of features set. It seems to be the pretty much same as ES5 ...
0
votes
2answers
141 views

comparison of computer processing language vs protocol

how can explain the diference between programming languge and protocol?, can protocol have extension? we know that machines communicate with protocol, but they can also do so with expressive ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

Differences between Instruction set (architecture) and machine language?

Tanenbaum's Structured Computer Organization says: Every computer has an ISA (Instruction Set Architecture), which is a set of registers, instructions, and other features visible to its ...
3
votes
3answers
762 views

Is functional language without runtime written in C possible? [closed]

Every functional language that compiles to native code relies on quite big runtime written in C programming language (well at least ones that I know of, for example Haskell, OCaml, Gambit/Chicken ...
-3
votes
1answer
111 views

If I want write a programming language, what I have to know? [closed]

I think about to take this course on coursera: https://www.coursera.org/course/compilers What knowledge I absolutely have to have in order to succeeded in this class? In particularly I'd like to ...
0
votes
2answers
194 views

How are declarative languages executed by a computer?

I'm getting introduced to declarative languages and am beginning to love them. In particular Haskell, a functional language, is very expressive, easy to debug. But my question has to do with ...
0
votes
2answers
442 views

Embedding extremely basic scripts in application

I need to program a C++ application which will basically work as a script interpreter, but with extremely basic and limited scripts. The scripts will have a format like this: processedA = ...
-1
votes
1answer
527 views

Why are language features more popular than compiler design? [closed]

If we had a universal interpreter for all available features of programming languages we could use a specializer to generate compilers for all languages. We could simply use any language as source (or ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

why are the evaluation strategies call-by-value etc. only discussed in the context of function calling?

I am referring to various discussions on the differences and nuances in the semantics of pass-by-value, pass-by-reference, e.g. in SO or in the Wikipedia article on the subject. My question is why do ...
2
votes
2answers
293 views

Should naming conventions be consistent or not across multiple programming languages in one project? [duplicate]

I saw this question on SO: here; the question is kind of old and not many viewed, so I want to ask it again. I currently work on a project using C++, C# and Actionscript-3, the conventions of C++ and ...
3
votes
3answers
808 views

Say I wanted to create a cross platform program that does not require a runtime/VM, am I stuck with C/C++? [closed]

Let's say that I'm a theoretical programmer hunting for a cross platform programming language, what are my options. This language must satisfy this list of requirements: It must not require the user ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Is a programming language a set of programs or a set of instructions?

From Structured Computer Organization by Tanenbum A program is a sequence of instructions describing how to perform a certain task. When trying to see a programming language as a formal ...
5
votes
3answers
343 views

Is prototypal inheritance inherently slower?

I see Javascript 6 will add traditional class based inheritance, and one argument I hear is that classes are inherently much faster than prototypes because they can be optimized away by the compiler ...
18
votes
5answers
2k views

What's the tradeoff for type inference?

It seems that all new programming languages or at least the ones that became popular use type inference. Even Javascript got types and type inference though various implementations (Acscript, ...
6
votes
2answers
895 views

What is the difference between Optionals and Nullable type

Swift has Optionals. C# has Nullable types. As far as I can tell both serve same purpose, besides value of some type they store information whether variable has value or is undefined ...
4
votes
2answers
610 views

Software development - The industry & general trends / Bad practices [duplicate]

I am a Web Developer and part of a small team working on an abundance of projects. This is my first "actual" real company after graduating with a degree in computer Science and I have about 2 years ...
21
votes
4answers
1k views

Why would many duck-typed dynamic programming languages use a class-based approach instead of prototype-based OOP?

Since quite many dynamic programming languages have the feature of duck typing, and they can also open up and modify class or instance methods at anytime (like Ruby and Python), then… Question 1) ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

Statistics about the usage of programming paradigms [closed]

I hear very often that the object-oriented programming paradigm is the most widespread. But are there any scientific statistics about how often other programming paradigms like procedural programming ...
9
votes
4answers
674 views

Why do python generators and functions share the “def” keyword?

Consider the following: def some_function(): return 1 def some_generator(): yield 1 In the code above, some_function is a function, while some_generator is a generator. They look quite ...
9
votes
5answers
2k views

class in OOP language and type

In programming language theory, a type is a set of values. E.g. the type "int" is the set of all integer values. In OOP languages, a class is a type, is it? When a class is defined with more than ...
0
votes
2answers
357 views

Which language has most advanced support for proof based programming? [closed]

By proof based programming, I mean, you can somehow prove the correctness of your program without testing. I heard that Ada has a feature called contract, I also heard that, if you can pass Haskell's ...
-3
votes
3answers
276 views

Are there any programming languages that don't descend from C? [closed]

I mean descend as in languages who's original compiler/interpreter was written in C or in a language that descends from C. If you don't count assembly, the only thing that comes to my mind is B. Are ...
2
votes
1answer
447 views

What is this Lisp dialect, used in GCC internals?

What programming language is this? It's a Lisp dialect used by GCC internals. (define_insn "*call_symbol" [(call (mem:DI (match_operand:DI 0 "" "")) (match_operand 1 "" "")) (use ...
1
vote
2answers
151 views

How much does C help you in other languages? [duplicate]

How much does learning C to moderate level help you as a programmer. For example, does being competent in C make it easier to pick up languages as time goes on and get a better understanding of them?
1
vote
6answers
410 views

Do you memorize the classes of your frameworks? [duplicate]

I've been an iOS developer for about 5 years. There are still things that NSString and NSArray do that I didn't know they could. All optional attributes and behaviors that I haven't seen, because I've ...
6
votes
5answers
2k views

How are financial organizations planning for the degradation of old programming languages such as COBOL? [closed]

I know that some financial organizations still use "dead" languages such as COBOL. I'm wondering what will happen in the future, when almost no one will program in those languages, and the ...
1
vote
2answers
355 views

Are there languages that allow goto statement to only go down?

goto statements can sometimes be useful to go down (to lower lines of code) in code, but can create a mess if used to go up (to higher lines of code). Therefore, I am wondering if there is any ...
0
votes
2answers
312 views

What's the benefit of having everything as an object in dynamically typed programming language? [closed]

modern dynamic programming languages like Python, Ruby and Javascript all take the approach of treating everything as an object, what's the benefit of this approach, and what's the curse of it? ...
-2
votes
4answers
126 views

Which code should I use to inform me of updates on websites? [closed]

I don't know if this is the correct place to ask this question but I'll ask it here anyway. I don't know much about programming (I only ever learned MATLAB!) but I wonder if there is a simple way to ...
35
votes
2answers
11k views

What are 4th & 5th programming language generations? Are there more of them? [closed]

As it is often classified at school/college level, popular programming languages (C#, Java, C++) are all 3rd generation languages (with higher level of abstraction from the machine's physical parts). ...
2
votes
1answer
285 views

Why do class-based OO-languages always use the keyword `new` to create an object? [duplicate]

I do not know much about OO-languages, but from what I have seen, it seems most class-based OO-languages uses a keyword new (or something equivalent) to create an object. Prototype-based OO-languages ...
-2
votes
1answer
195 views

Why are mostly 9999, 99999… are used for making comparisons [closed]

I (I am sure everyone else also) have always seen comparisons of some value to 999 or 9999 .... etc. for e.g.: in CSS z-index: 9999 or some times str.length < 99999 I wonder if there is some ...
8
votes
2answers
8k views

Why is C still in the category of High Level Language? [closed]

Many of the textbooks on the C programming language tell that C is a high-level programming language, but many of the tutors online say that C is also a middle-level programming language. Why is it ...
2
votes
5answers
472 views

Is it difficult to develop a programming language which is closely related to human language? [closed]

Will it be difficult in developing a programming language which is much more closer to our language ? It was just to know the view of programmers across the globe towards the natural programming ...
1
vote
4answers
738 views

Why C language is taught as the basis of Computer Programming Languages? [duplicate]

I often wondered why C Language is taught as the basis of programming languages everywhere. There are a lot of modern languages like Java, Python etc. which makes the syntax and programming easier. ...
10
votes
7answers
2k views

How did OOP evolve to include the notion of Properties

I've come from a C++ background and am going all out C# in my current job and I've just been reading a lot of Q&A about what's the difference between public fields and properties and all the back ...
149
votes
6answers
29k views

Is every language written in C?

Sometimes while programming in different languages (C/C++, C#), this thought comes to my mind: Is each and every language written in the C programming language? Is the C language the mother/father ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Returning the object/$this [duplicate]

A very general question. I was thinking about method chaining, which seems useful, and began wondering if there is a reason to not return the object in a class member, as a matter of course. For ...
2
votes
2answers
159 views

What is meant by “redundant, but not duplicative” in the Steelman language requirements?

The Steelman language requirements have this: The language shall require some redundant, but not duplicative, specifications in programs. I think I can see the underlying idea (that re-stating ...
2
votes
1answer
394 views

Modern OOP vs Alan Kays OOP [closed]

I've recently come to discover there's actually a strong amount of criticism towards what people refer to as "modern OOP" - often comparing it to either functional programming or Alan Kays' OOP. ...
-3
votes
2answers
191 views

Company decides standard language for all development, or coder can pick their own standard…so that is the standard? What is the norm? [closed]

Our company is moving from IBM mainframe environment and coding, to an OO environment. Is it possible...or is it correct/plausable to NOT have any standard whatsoever with regard to the server side ...
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Historical precedent for why Prolog is less popular than SQL in Imperative Programming? [closed]

It seems that writing Declarative SQL is very popular in Imperative Programming. However, it also seems that writing Declarative Prolog could save a lot of complexity but this is not very common. ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

Pre-Compilation Processor:

What I want to do: Parse source code, search for a beginning and closing tag of my own definition (one that does not conflict with any defined patterns in the programming language), and then replace ...
9
votes
8answers
2k views

Why are self-hosting compilers considered a rite of passage for new languages?

I've heard in a number of places now that people expect languages to use, or at least have, a self-hosting compiler in order to deserve respect. I'm curious as to why this is. A compiler seems like a ...
1
vote
3answers
322 views

type infered statically typed languages?

are there any typeless typesafe languages? By typesafe I mean types are checked at compile time. By typeless I mean types are not declared. I know this is easier than it sounds, maybe even impossible ...
1
vote
1answer
143 views

How would one allow a client to query a graph database in Smalltalk, without exposing all of Smalltalk? [closed]

Is there any example of Smalltalk being used as a query language? What I am looking for is: a system or an application where the Smalltalk nature of the application is hidden or irrelevant to the ...