Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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25
votes
7answers
12k views

What is a “side effect?”

I haven’t clearly understood the concept of side effect. What is side effect in programming? Is it programming language dependent? Is there such a thing as external and internal side effects? ...
18
votes
10answers
920 views

Is it reasonable to assume/require the .NET framework these days?

Background: I have a project where I need to provide the user a download package with some sensitive data in it. The data needs to be encrypted. After they download it, they need to be able to view ...
2
votes
4answers
2k views

Programming a chatterbot - understanding language [closed]

I hope this is an answerable question. Let me give it some context: I am a psychology student and a programmer. I'm going to look into creating a artificial intelligence in the form of a chatterbot. ...
-3
votes
3answers
145 views

What programming languages are most suitable for implementing design patterns? [closed]

What programming language is best for implementing design patterns, (Factory , etc) especially for example if I need to develop a engineer scheduling system in less than a month. Would Java be my ...
23
votes
12answers
9k views

Why aren't there automated translators from one programming language to another? [closed]

Most programming languages are Turing complete, which means that any task that can be solved in one language can be solved in another one, or even on Turing machine. Then why aren't there automatic ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Developing a “time scheduler” app [duplicate]

I need to develop an application to generate, given a set of preferences and constraints, a time schedule for employees. These tables can really get complex and they might need to take into account ...
-1
votes
3answers
616 views

What is meant by Open Source Programming Language? [closed]

What does it mean when we say that it is an open source programming language? I mean is it the implementation (compiler/runtime) of the language which can be open or close in nature or something else. ...
-4
votes
1answer
158 views

Eliminating choices of programming languages? [closed]

There are a number of programming languages available today. My question is given a specific job what is the criteria one should use to eliminate other programming language choices which serve the ...
0
votes
1answer
115 views

What to do if a feature is not supported natively on a platform? [closed]

If a feature is not supported on a platform natively what would a programmer do? For example, when building an iphone app, if you are trying to slide a picture(just as an example- I know you can slide ...
7
votes
2answers
742 views

What is the relationship between lambda calculus and programming languages? [closed]

I am starting my first year (in college) in Computer Science next year and I write mostly in C (if that is to matter). I have tried searching but most of what I find assumes knowledge of lambda ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

Programming language with pattern matching in trees [closed]

I'd like to prototype a computer algebra system. An equation would be represented by a tree and rules would be defined - similarly to mathematical axioms - by specifying a pattern (in the tree) and a ...
1
vote
3answers
509 views

Is it possible to have a dynamically typed language without duck typing? [closed]

This question has been asked here, but received poor answers and didn't clarify the issue. I believe it justifies asking it again. I understand that you can have duck typing with either dynamically ...
-5
votes
1answer
170 views

How can I start making a programming language? [duplicate]

my question is this; How do I start making a programming language? By this I mean not an interpreted language, but I want to know how do I start from the machine code and work up, like the first ...
0
votes
0answers
161 views

Best way to handle language interoperability

Background In a language like F#, direct interoperability with most other .NET languages is possible. For example, it is possible to use classes written in C# directly in F#, and it is possible to ...
10
votes
3answers
16k views

What are binaries? [closed]

I see very often people using term binaries in different context. What are binaries? Collection on binary files, installation files, .dll files or what? Or is it just an general term for some ...
0
votes
1answer
127 views

Order of Operations Annoyance [duplicate]

In most programming languages (C#, JavaScript, Java) the order of operations precedence has that equality comparison come BEFORE bitwise comparisons. This means that if you have a bit operation and ...
1
vote
3answers
217 views

How to abide the “allocate in caller” rule when the size is computed in the callee?

Let's say we have an opaque type handle_t that is managed through a simple interface with functions such as: handle_t *handle_init(void); int handle_do(handle_t *); void handle_free(handle_t *); ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views
1
vote
1answer
283 views

Which programming language first came up with the finally block?

Which programming language first came up with the finally block? I ask purely out of curiosity. It is a very useful piece of syntactic sugar, and whoever first created it surely has a very ...
20
votes
5answers
2k views

Why is type inference useful?

I read code way more often than I write code, and I'm assuming that most of the programmers working on industrial software do this. The advantage of type inference I assume is less verbosity and less ...
8
votes
5answers
671 views

Are there programming languages that allow you to do set arithmetic on types?

Out of curiosity, are there languages that allow you to do set arithmetic on types to create new types? Something like: interface A { void a(); void b(); } interface B { void b(); void ...
2
votes
1answer
321 views

Do compilers un-inline recurrent expressions?

Does a compiler look for recurrent expressions to convert it into 'function' to reduce binary size and improve performance? Of course, the obvious answer might be "some do it, some don't", so I ask ...
1
vote
4answers
187 views

What would you call the concept of CofeeScript or Sass to be? [duplicate]

There is this rising trend with web development of making new pseudo languages to extend the functionality of JavaScript, CSS and HTML given that those are static and their metamorphosis or evolution ...
54
votes
10answers
20k views

Why has C prevailed over Pascal? [closed]

My understanding is that in the 1980s, and perhaps in the 1990s too, Pascal and C were pretty much head-to-head as production languages. Is the ultimate demise of Pascal only due to Borland's neglect ...
8
votes
7answers
341 views

How does a variable introduce state?

I was reading the "C++ Coding Standards" and this line was there: Variables introduce state, and you should have to deal with as little state as possible, with lifetimes as short as possible. ...
6
votes
2answers
476 views

In layman's terms, what is left recursion?

According to one page on code.google.com, "left recursion" is defined as follows: Left recursion just refers to any recursive nonterminal that, when it produces a sentential form containing ...
2
votes
2answers
555 views

What is the difference between if('' == $variable) and if($variable == '') [duplicate]

While using an 'if' statement to check whether a variable is an empty string or not we can write it in two ways i.e. if('' == $variable) and if($variable == ''). I want to know what is the impact of ...
0
votes
2answers
149 views

Finding metrics for development time in different languages [closed]

I'm trying to determine if a language I'm investigating (Groovy) is better for developing enterprise applications than our current language (Java). Specifically I'm trying to figure out if it will ...
0
votes
1answer
462 views

Static typing vs. dynamic typing [closed]

I'm developing my own programming language in my spare time as a hobby. It's an interpreted language. Currently the syntax for variables is this: %<variable> = <value> Here are some ...
0
votes
1answer
139 views

What are factors to take into consideration in choosing a programming language/paradigm for a rule-based natural-language translation program?

I have experience with object-oriented programming languages (C++ and Java), but I am wondering what kinds of programming languages — including OOP languages– or programming paradigms might be ...
3
votes
2answers
164 views

What is the extent of programming language localization dialects?

Apple's scripting language AppleScript was designed with localization in mind; allowing the language to be represented in multiple dialects resembling languages from around the world. In this way, ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Find all possible subarrays of an Array

I am lost I just can't seem to get my head around backtracking/recursion approaches. I understand how simple recursion problems like factorials work I can even trace those by hand. But when it comes ...
17
votes
8answers
4k views

If one is to learn a new programming language each year, what should the list be? [closed]

In chapter one of "The Pragmatic Programmer" the first learning goal is: Learn at least one new language every year. Different languages solve the same problems in different ways. By learning ...
0
votes
3answers
332 views

How should I “dig deeper” as a web developer? [closed]

I am currently a full-stack web developer working mainly in Ruby/Rails/Javascript. The languages I use on a daily basis (ruby, css, javascript, php) are great, but they are very dynamic, high level ...
2
votes
4answers
535 views

Why aren't we building and using parallel processors *meant* for general computation?

We all know GPUs are much faster than CPUs for a wide range of applications. When someone asks why we are not just programming for GPUs at all, one of the most common answers is that GPUs are not good ...
2
votes
2answers
189 views

What properties does an object oriented language have? [closed]

I'm currently working on a game and wanted to add some scripting support. Due to trying to keep the entire codebase in managed c# (Excluding Monogame), I am using a custom language for the scripting ...
18
votes
4answers
12k views

Why were default and static methods added to interfaces in Java 8 when we already had abstract classes?

In Java 8, interfaces can contain implemented methods, static methods, and the so-called "default" methods (which the implementing classes do not need to override). In my (probably naive) view, there ...
22
votes
5answers
2k views

What specifically does expressive power refer to?

Expressive Power is defined by Wikipedia as: .. the breadth of ideas that can be represented and communicated in that language. Does "ideas" refer to the things (operations, structures, ...
3
votes
7answers
208 views

What if any languages treat undisposed resources as an error?

I've seen lots of code like the following example. It's in Python, but the same mistake is made in all languages with managed resources: f = open('foo.txt', 'rb') for line in f: print line That's ...
1
vote
3answers
356 views

From a technical point of view, could JavaScript be compiled instead of interpreted?

The question title speaks for itself. I'm specifically thinking in terms of a Node.js server. Additionally, this question is assuming that you don't need eval(). Also, if this is not possible, why ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the Mercury Programming Language used in the field?

I've strong interests in Functional and Logic programming and Mercury seems like a good blend of the two. Is it used in industry at all? I'm one to learn a language just for the fun of it but it would ...
3
votes
7answers
540 views

How to choose a language, when taking in account the community it includes?

I was reading the following article: Great Hackers The following part grabbed my attention: "When you choose a language, you're also choosing a community. The programmers you'll be able to hire ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

How does Python compile some its code in C?

I read that some constructs of Python are more efficient because they are compiled in C. https://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonSpeed/PerformanceTips Some of the examples used were map() and filter(). I ...
2
votes
5answers
270 views

Do first-class methods exist?

Okay, I know first-class functions are cool, closures even better, etc. But is there any language with first-class methods? In my mind, I see a first-class method as an "object" that has both a ...
1
vote
2answers
171 views

If there's no problem treating a statement as an expression, why was there a distinction in the first place in some programming languages? [duplicate]

Why do we have the distinction between statements and expressions in most programming languages? For example, in Java, assuming f and g return ints, this still won't compile because it's a statement ...
11
votes
8answers
9k views

Why does C dominate in the embedded software market? [closed]

Almost everyone will now say the blessing: performance! Okay, C does allow to write athletic code. But there are other languages that can do so, after all! And the optimising power of modern ...
49
votes
14answers
5k views

Keep a programming language backwards compatible vs. fixing its flaws

First, some context (stuff that most of you know anyway): Every popular programming language has a clear evolution, most of the time marked by its version: you have Java 5, 6, 7 etc., PHP 5.1, 5.2, ...
32
votes
5answers
2k views

What does “context-free” mean in the term “context-free grammar”?

Given the amount of material that tries to explain what a context-free grammar (CFG) is, I found it surprising that very few (in my sample, less than 1 in 20) give an explanation on why such grammars ...
37
votes
22answers
3k views

Has whitespace in identifiers ever been idiomatic? [closed]

C# style suggests using CamelCase in identifiers to delimit words. Lisp tradition suggests using-dashes-instead. Has there ever existed a programming language where using spaces in identifiers was ...
1
vote
3answers
88 views

Property-level value transformation for indirect object casting

Does any programming language exist to support the explicit, property-level object copy? For example, assume this code: public class Student { public string Name { get; set; } public ...