Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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4
votes
1answer
187 views

How should I recursively process a file in Haskell?

Basically I'm expanding a literate program in Haskell. There are two things I need to look for to expand. Here's an example file: program.c.lit: ============== Some comments in the source file that I ...
5
votes
4answers
349 views

Which language introduced the idea of private (hidden) variables? [duplicate]

I know C++ had private variables inside classes, and Java, C#, Javascript, and others picked up on that and ran with it. Aside from variable scope, most languages before that just made everything ...
1
vote
1answer
134 views

what is a language specification?

Either I am being a total n00b or just not with it today but I have been reading a few blogs lately and they talk about language specs. What actually is a language spec? Is php.net a language spec? ...
5
votes
3answers
407 views

Declaring variables in Python and PHP

The question is how to cope with absence of variable declaration in Python, PHP, and the like. In most languages there is a way to let the compiler know whether I introduce a new variable or refer to ...
11
votes
10answers
3k views

Can a closed-source programming language survive? [closed]

A friend has written a programming language. It has a syntax reminiscent of SGML. He has written an interpreter for it, and an IDE. He and his colleagues use it in-house as a server-side language. It ...
4
votes
5answers
1k views

Does this kind of programming language exist?

I'm thinking about creating my own pet programming language, and I have been wondering if similar language already exists. The basic idea is that the language itself would be dynamically typed with ...
6
votes
7answers
1k views

Why isn't there a next operation on enums?

In most popular programming languages like Java and C# there is a way to define enums, which are essentially datatypes with a fixed set of values, e.g. DayOfWeek. The problem is, given a value, e.g. ...
30
votes
5answers
3k views

Why do some functional programming languages use a space for function application?

Having looked at some languages for functional programming, I always wondered why some fp-languages use one or more whitespace characters for function application (and definition), whereas most (all?) ...
1
vote
2answers
360 views

Can a version of Python's shelve module that knows when its entries have been modified be written in any programming language?

shelve is a Python module that makes it easy to persist a Python dictionary to disk (under the right conditions). The documentation for shelve gives this example to demonstrate one of the pitfalls of ...
31
votes
6answers
3k views

Why isn't testing a language a supported feature at the syntax level?

You can find an endless list of blogs, articles and websites promoting the benefits of unit testing your source code. It's almost guaranteed that the developers who programmed the compilers for Java, ...
4
votes
1answer
356 views

How do programming languages integrate with OS runtimes

For example, Objective-C, Swift and Ruby (i.e. RubyMotion) integrate with the Cocoa framework. Is this done via linked libraries? I assume they call functions in existing binaries instead of simply ...
0
votes
3answers
168 views

is there any language that supports automatic evaluation of input expressions?

I'm wondering if anyone knows of a language that supports automatic-evaluation. (not sure this is the right term. so let me describe what I mean below) For example, a program asks for an int as its ...
0
votes
2answers
196 views

Is PHP the only popular language that mixes simple and associative arrays into a single type? [closed]

I'm doing a research on PHP and wondering if there any other commonly used programming langues that use an associative array for both simple indexed element storage and key-value functionality. Does ...
1
vote
2answers
314 views

is JS a gradually typed language?

I was researching on statically typed and dynamically typed concepts and found out there is another type system called gradually typed. From wikipedia Gradual typing is a type system in which ...
-1
votes
1answer
183 views

All programming functions always return to the If or If/Else statement? [closed]

After learning, coding, and coding even more than ever now, I have noticed a trend in a lot of programming which I do. The trend is that the majority of my functions are if{} or if{} else{} statements ...
11
votes
5answers
1k views

Is it beneficial to study past the basics of a core language when the primary goal is to rely on its framework? [closed]

Please keep in mind this is not another 'How much [insert programming language here] should I know before moving onto [insert framework here]?' What I'd like to know is how beneficial is it to learn ...
0
votes
3answers
311 views

How to get an image or rectangle to detect collision with another image

Can someone please explain to me how to detect collision with another image? The tutorial I was watching explained how to detect if a collision occurs between two rectangles but I would like to use ...
2
votes
1answer
843 views

Why are most functional programming languages also interpreted languages?

Functional/non-functional and interpreted/compiled are two different categorizations, yet it seems that there are a lot of overlaps in the programming languages that fall under those categories. Is ...
2
votes
1answer
232 views

High-level description of how experimental C++ features are developed?

Herb Sutter in a video answers a question about the concepts proposal considered for C++11 and from his remarks it sounds like multiple groups offered prototype implementations but all of them left ...
5
votes
1answer
700 views

Is there an imperative language with a Haskell-like type system? [closed]

I've tried to learn Haskell a few times over the last few years, and, maybe because I know mainly scripting languages, the functional-ness of it has always bothered me (monads seem like a huge mess ...
2
votes
0answers
114 views

How do references work in R?

I'm finding R confusing because it has such a different notion of reference than I am used to in languages like C, Java, Javascript... Ruby, Python, C++, well, pretty much any language I have ever ...
1
vote
1answer
268 views

Object-Oriented equivalent of LISP's progn function?

I'm currently writing a LISP parser that iterates through some AutoLISP code and does its best to make it a little easier to read (changing prefix notation to infix notation, changing setq assignments ...
-2
votes
1answer
112 views

How to make a non-english clone of CoffeeScript? [closed]

I want to make a non-english programming language that is identical to what CoffeeScript is to JavaScript. What I mean is that I don't want to build my own design or syntax. Just want to have a ...
3
votes
5answers
608 views

Should sanity be a property of a programmer or a program? [closed]

I design and implement languages, that can range from object notations to markup languages. In many cases I have considered restrictions in favor of sanity (common knowledge), like in the case of ...
0
votes
3answers
219 views

How to diagram custom programming languages, non textual?

I've used and created domain-specific languages before, plenty of times (e.g. using yacc/lex). Normally we'd start with grammar written in BNF, and a bunch of keywords. This is easy to do, easy to ...
18
votes
3answers
14k views

Programming Language vs Markup Language vs Scripting Language

Up until now I don't know the KEY differences between these three. When someone asks me about this, I only tell them that C# is a programming language, HTML and XML are Markup Languages, and ...
4
votes
0answers
85 views

How significant is the impact of the type system (static/dynamic) on the overall design of programs? [duplicate]

Coming from Java, I've never used a language with dynamic typing. I'm very used to the static-typing way of thinking. My question is, how much does the use of dynamic typing as opposed to static ...
0
votes
1answer
166 views

How do programming language translators work? [closed]

I'm a programmer and I'm looking to play around with translating one language to another. Say C# to Lua. I'm curious as to how translating languages like that works? I would think there is some kind ...
13
votes
5answers
1k views

Dealing with not knowing parameter names of a function when you're calling it

Here's a programming/language problem I'd like to hear your thoughts on. We have developed conventions that most programmers (should) follow that aren't a part of the languages syntax but serve to ...
28
votes
2answers
2k views

First ATMs programming language

First ATMs performed tasks like a cash dispenser, they were offline machines which worked with punch cards impregnated with Carbon and a 6-digit PIN code. Maximum withdrawal with a card was 10 pounds ...
2
votes
1answer
465 views

What language do companies like NASA use to create their applications? [duplicate]

So obviously NASA need programmers to develop applications for them, be it VOIP applications, applications for control of machines and AI, etc. But in what language do they actually use for this? ...
1
vote
1answer
212 views

What is the most efficient method in converting AutoLISP legacy code to C#?

I am engaged in a project that works mainly in AutoCAD to design and manufacture prefabricated building components such as roofing trusses. One of our goals is to redesign a program that was written ...
1
vote
2answers
245 views

Lexer/Parser for multidimensional Languages

How does Lexer/Parser work in a 2D programming language like Funciton in order to transform such an unusual source-code to the correct AST?
3
votes
3answers
751 views

Standardized Programming Languages

Is there an organization similar to W3C that creates standards for programming languages? If so, are there any programming languages, like browsers would using W3C standards, that implement these ...
0
votes
3answers
273 views

Do markup languages ​​have the equivalent concept of `semantics` that you can find in C or C++?

Maybe I miss something, but do the so called markup languages have the equivalent concept of semantics that you can find in C or C++? Judging from how you parse the language, you don't really have ...
18
votes
1answer
624 views

Using uniqueness types to implement safe parallelism

I've been interested in uniqueness types as an alternative to monads in pure functional languages for some time; unfortunately, this is kind of an esoteric area of CS research and online resources ...
2
votes
1answer
252 views

How and when should I design a simple mark-up language parser? [closed]

I want to write a simple markup language with its rendering engine. First, I am not completely sure when I should try this... I am only 12... But I am competent in C++ having learned through the Web ...
10
votes
12answers
2k views

Why don't more languages have the ability to compare a value to more than one other value? [closed]

Consider the following: if(a == b or c) In most languages, this would need to be written as: if(a == b or a == c) which is slightly cumbersome and repeats information. I know my above sample ...
0
votes
2answers
241 views

What happened to VM based deployments?

Watched some MountainWest RubyConf 2014 talks and noticed an interesting theme. Many dynamic programming environments back in the old days used to be self-contained VM images, e.g. SmallTalk, ...
1
vote
6answers
527 views

Why can we not insert into files without the additional writes? (I neither mean append, nor over-write)

This occurs as a programming language independent problem to me. I have a file with the content aaabddd When I want to insert C behind b then my code needs to rewrite ddd to get aaabCddd Why ...
2
votes
2answers
174 views

Why must essential mutable derived data have an inverse function?

I was reading the paper Out of the Tar Pit authored by Ben Moseley and Peter Marks when I came across the following section on page 25 regarding essential mutable derived data: Essential Derived ...
17
votes
6answers
3k views

What made BASIC profitable? [closed]

In the 1970s, a man called Bill Gates developed an interpreter for BASIC: the Altair BASIC. Per my understanding, he was able to persuade the guy in charge of a microcomputer company to include the ...
1
vote
2answers
272 views

What's the reason of choosing PascalCasing over camelCasing or vice versa from a programming language design POV?

I like both but I notice languages that use camelCasing for members sometimes need more adjustments when you want to edit your code. For example (in Python): node.customData() vs ...
1
vote
4answers
704 views

Why do higher level languages have neither xor nor nand short-circuit operators?

While many higher level languages have bitwise (exclusive or) and bitwise (exclusive and), for instance C, C++, Java, etc. I'm curious why the ( vastly more useful ) logical short-circuit operators ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Is a language that provides more abstractions to use it's own API, considered higher-level than a language that doesn't? [duplicate]

Consider two programming languages: Both run on a VM, have the same amount of abstraction levels between the programmer and the OS and CPU, etc. The only difference is inside the languages themselves ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Left and Right most Derivation

So i understand the semantics of derivations as far as Backus Naur Form goes. One thing I cannot find in any text book or the various lecturers' notes that are on-line is this. When would a right ...
0
votes
1answer
252 views

Derivations in BNF

I get how to do a derivation of a BNF. My text books do a good job of explaining it (much better than the on-line lecture notes of many profs etc). Example below then my questions: <program> ...
-4
votes
3answers
196 views

Is a programmer professionality bound to the language? [closed]

I hear people saying that "a true programmer is not bound to a programming language, because programming goes beyond that", and albeit agreeing on the premise, i consider my professionality pretty ...
19
votes
4answers
15k views

Why were default and static methods added to interfaces in Java 8 when we already had abstract classes?

In Java 8, interfaces can contain implemented methods, static methods, and the so-called "default" methods (which the implementing classes do not need to override). In my (probably naive) view, there ...
31
votes
8answers
3k views

Disadvantages of scoped-based memory management

I really like scope-based memory management (SBMM), or RAII, as it is more commonly (confusingly?) referred to by the C++ community. As far as I know, except for C++ (and C), there's no other ...