Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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-2
votes
1answer
44 views

Concepts for a programming language similar to environment and environment variables in shell language?

In general programming language theory (i.e. theory and concepts that can apply to other programming languages), what concepts generalizes (or are similar to) environment and environment variables in ...
-3
votes
0answers
18 views

Which knowledges are require before creating any android apps [on hold]

Now I am studying java.but I don't think I can make android apps after completing java.so I think I need to learn more things.so pls give me some suggestions.thank you😊
10
votes
6answers
1k views

Why is SQL known as a relation-based / functional language?

We're learning that most languages are classified as either of the two, "relation based" or "high level". I've never used SQL before, but from reading its syntax it seems more like the ...
15
votes
5answers
869 views

What's the tradeoff for type inference?

It seems that all new programming languages or at least the ones that became popular use type inference. Even Javascript got types and type inference though various implementations (Acscript, ...
11
votes
2answers
266 views

Is higher-rank parametric polymorphism useful?

I'm pretty sure everyone is familiar with generic methods of the form: T DoSomething<T>(T item) This function is also called parametrically polymorphic (PP), specifically rank-1 PP. Let's ...
-4
votes
0answers
78 views

Programming Concepts [closed]

Can someone tell me the all the programming concept to be an expert programmer ? like Delegation, Classes etc.. any good books to learn those all the programming concepts that i can go from beginner ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Documentation Generation - FiM++

This is a question I originally asked on Stack Overflow, but as a conceptual design question as opposed to a technical issue, I believe it may be more appropriate, or possibly have alternate parallel ...
212
votes
25answers
23k views

How do you know you're writing good code? [duplicate]

I love programming. I've been messing around with code since I was a kid. I never went the professional route, but I have coded several in-house applications for various employers, including a project ...
46
votes
5answers
6k views

Is there a correlation between the scale of the project and the strictness of the language?

Explaining the difference between strictness of languages and paradigms to a colleague of mine, I ended up asserting that: Tolerant languages, such as dynamic and interpreted languages, are used ...
31
votes
8answers
6k views

Is there a reason to have a bottom type in a programming language?

A bottom type is a construct primarily appearing in mathematical type theory. It is also called the empty type. It is a type that has no values, but is a subtype of all types. If a function's return ...
-3
votes
0answers
99 views

How much programming should I know at the age of 17? [closed]

I love programming, I will study computer science in college, I am a junior in high school right now. I want to work for big IT companies such as Facebook, Google, Dropbox, Apple.. I want to have a ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is C still in the category of High Level Language? [closed]

Many of the textbooks on the C programming language tell that C is a high-level programming language, but many of the tutors online say that C is also a middle-level programming language. Why is it ...
-3
votes
0answers
61 views

Metric for programming language ease of understanding [closed]

A while ago, I read about a metric for programming languages which tracked how difficult to understand they were to novices. The statistic I remember is that SQL was significantly easier to understand ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

Managing scaffolding for debug vs production builds

The more I program the more I realize that most of my time is spent writing scaffolding for programs so that I can debug them and then strip away the scaffolding for production. The problem is that ...
0
votes
3answers
314 views

How are basic functions implemented in a programming language if they are not built in? [closed]

The lowest levels of a programming language's library functions are always obscure and often have no code that looks like it even remotely does anything. Some languages have these functions like ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Looking to increase the speed of my bash script [migrated]

The title pretty much says it all, I have a short bash script that processes gigs and gigs of data. I am looking for any improvements to make it faster. This is my very first bash script so please ...
11
votes
1answer
423 views

Why do you need higher kinds?

Some languages allow for classes and functions with type parameters (such as List<T> where T may be an arbitrary type). For example, you can have a function like: List<S> Function<S, ...
-2
votes
4answers
226 views

Why is there no Swap command? [closed]

In many programming languages, I see programmers always struggle to swap 2 variabeles. Most of the time it costs 3 copies and a temporary variabele to accomplish it. Why do programming language dont ...
8
votes
2answers
480 views

Why did programming languages start using = for assignment?

In most early algorithms books, <- referred to assignment and = referred to comparison. But nowadays the only languages that don't use = for assignment are Pascal (:=) and toy languages like COOL. ...
2
votes
1answer
311 views

How to process large files in NetLogo?

I am running into problems in NetLogo with large *.csv / *.txt files. The documents can consist of about 1 million data sets and I need to read them (to eventually create a diagram based on the ...
35
votes
9answers
12k views

Why do schools teach arrays over List? [closed]

Most of the assignments in my school for the initial programming classes required me to use arrays. I work full time now, and I never used an array for any project that I have worked on. Even in the ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

comparison of computer processing language vs protocol

how can explain the diference between programming languge and protocol?, can protocol have extension? we know that machines communicate with protocol, but they can also do so with expressive ...
1
vote
3answers
155 views

Differences between Instruction set (architecture) and machine language?

Tanenbaum's Structured Computer Organization says: Every computer has an ISA (Instruction Set Architecture), which is a set of registers, instructions, and other features visible to its ...
14
votes
1answer
402 views

Using uniqueness types to implement safe parallelism

I've been interested in uniqueness types as an alternative to monads in pure functional languages for some time; unfortunately, this is kind of an esoteric area of CS research and online resources ...
8
votes
3answers
822 views

Are there any good use-cases for variable variables?

Today I encountered this little PHP gem called variable variables. $literal = "Hello"; $vv = "literal"; echo $$vv; // => prints "Hello" Are there actually any real use-cases for this language ...
-1
votes
1answer
61 views

What is the easiest way to store a piece of text in an HTML page? [closed]

I'll say in advance - I have almost no experience with HTML. I am currently coding a game in Lua, which needs to access a piece of code from an HTML website using GET. My question is this: What is ...
0
votes
2answers
195 views

Is there any plan to take out “features” from next versions of javascript? [closed]

I'm looking to learn javascript (now for real) and I've had a look on the latest version of ES6 which is supposed to be frozen in terms of features set. It seems to be the pretty much same as ES5 ...
40
votes
12answers
4k views

What programming language generates fewest hard-to-find bugs? [closed]

What language, in your opinion, allows the average programmer to output features with the least amount of hard-to-find bugs? This is of course, a very broad question, and I'm interested in very broad ...
55
votes
11answers
11k views

A modern review of Java [closed]

I've been programming for a few years and I began in Java, and in my time I've found many different sources claiming Java to be an inferior language in some way or another. I'm well aware that each ...
-1
votes
2answers
178 views

Is functional language without runtime written in C possible?

Every functional language that compiles to native code relies on quite big runtime written in C programming language (well at least ones that I know of, for example Haskell, OCaml, Gambit/Chicken ...
137
votes
6answers
23k views

Is every language written in C?

Sometimes while programming in different languages (C/C++, C#), this thought comes to my mind: Is each and every language written in the C programming language? Is the C language the mother/father ...
-3
votes
1answer
75 views

If I want write a programming language, what I have to know? [closed]

I think about to take this course on coursera: https://www.coursera.org/course/compilers What knowledge I absolutely have to have in order to succeeded in this class? In particularly I'd like to ...
9
votes
7answers
2k views

Does Oracle reap economic benefits by maintaining Java? [closed]

It occurred to me that many programming languages such as Python and Javascript are maintained by non-profit foundations. I can see why a foundation would update a free programming language- in order ...
0
votes
2answers
163 views

How are declarative languages executed by a computer?

I'm getting introduced to declarative languages and am beginning to love them. In particular Haskell, a functional language, is very expressive, easy to debug. But my question has to do with ...
0
votes
2answers
144 views

Embedding extremely basic scripts in application

I need to program a C++ application which will basically work as a script interpreter, but with extremely basic and limited scripts. The scripts will have a format like this: processedA = ...
21
votes
9answers
4k views

Declarative programming vs. Imperative programming

I feel very comfortable with Imperative programming. I never have trouble expressing algorithmically what I want the computer to do once I figured out what is it that I want it to do. But when it ...
29
votes
6answers
3k views

Is it actually possible to have a 'useful' programming language that isn't Turing complete?

Where it is accepted that a language has to be Turing complete to be any good, is it actually possible to have a 'useful' programming language that isn't Turing complete? I should clarify that this ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

Why are language features more popular than compiler design? [closed]

If we had a universal interpreter for all available features of programming languages we could use a specializer to generate compilers for all languages. We could simply use any language as source (or ...
17
votes
2answers
12k views

Sets Data Structure in Golang

I really like google golang but could some one explain what the rationale is for the implementors having left out a basic data structure such as sets from the standard library?
5
votes
4answers
903 views

Is a programming language a set of programs or a set of instructions?

From Structured Computer Organization by Tanenbum A program is a sequence of instructions describing how to perform a certain task. When trying to see a programming language as a formal ...
-1
votes
2answers
127 views

Should I learn a programming language that compiles to another? [closed]

For about a year now, I've been doing full stack web development. I am doing about 66% backend stuff (in Python), but from a time to time, I need to write HTML, CSS and JavaScript. I really want to ...
2
votes
3answers
358 views

Say I wanted to create a cross platform program that does not require a runtime/VM, am I stuck with C/C++? [closed]

Let's say that I'm a theoretical programmer hunting for a cross platform programming language, what are my options. This language must satisfy this list of requirements: It must not require the user ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

why are the evaluation strategies call-by-value etc. only discussed in the context of function calling?

I am referring to various discussions on the differences and nuances in the semantics of pass-by-value, pass-by-reference, e.g. in SO or in the Wikipedia article on the subject. My question is why do ...
2
votes
2answers
119 views

Should naming conventions be consistent or not across multiple programming languages in one project? [duplicate]

I saw this question on SO: here; the question is kind of old and not many viewed, so I want to ask it again. I currently work on a project using C++, C# and Actionscript-3, the conventions of C++ and ...
8
votes
5answers
1k views

When would dynamic scoping be useful?

With dynamic scoping, a callee can access the variables of its caller. Pseudo C code: void foo() { print(x); } void bar() { int x = 42; foo(); } Since I have never programmed in a ...
5
votes
3answers
239 views

Is prototypal inheritance inherently slower?

I see Javascript 6 will add traditional class based inheritance, and one argument I hear is that classes are inherently much faster than prototypes because they can be optimized away by the compiler ...
0
votes
5answers
243 views

Does it matter how I format the name of a function? [closed]

Yes, I know, silly question. But this question has been bugging me for a while, and now I just want to know if it really matters. Basically, I just want to know if it really matters if I format a ...
24
votes
8answers
13k views

Learning Multiple Languages Simultaneously [closed]

When learning new languages, is it better to commit yourself to one language 100% and wait until you've "mastered" it to move on to another, or to work on learning different languages at the same ...
6
votes
2answers
300 views

What is the difference between Optionals and Nullable type

Swift has Optionals. C# has Nullable types. As far as I can tell both serve same purpose, besides value of some type they store information whether variable has value or is undefined ...
20
votes
4answers
1k views

Why would many duck-typed dynamic programming languages use a class-based approach instead of prototype-based OOP?

Since quite many dynamic programming languages have the feature of duck typing, and they can also open up and modify class or instance methods at anytime (like Ruby and Python), then… Question 1) ...