Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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94
votes
108answers
120k views

Do people in non-English-speaking countries code in English? [closed]

I've heard it said (by coworkers) that everyone "codes in English" regardless of where they're from. I find that difficult to believe, however I wouldn't be surprised if, for most programming ...
58
votes
15answers
37k views

I don't know C. And why should I learn it? [closed]

My first programming language was PHP (gasp). After that I started working with JavaScript. I've recently done work in C#. I've never once looked at low or mid level languages like C. The general ...
148
votes
26answers
17k views

Is constantly looking for code examples a sign of a bad developer? [closed]

I am a CS student with several years of experience in C and C++, and for the last few years I've been constantly working with Java/Objective C doing app development and now I have switched to web ...
419
votes
33answers
202k views

How do I create my own programming language and a compiler for it [closed]

I am thorough with programming and have come across languages including BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, LISP, LOGO, Java, C++, C, MATLAB, Mathematica, Python, Ruby, Perl, JavaScript, Assembly and so on. I can'...
82
votes
15answers
45k views

How can I really master a programming language?

I know that learning a language, you can simply buy a book, follow the examples, and whenever possible try the exercises. But what I'm really looking is how to master the language once you've learned ...
145
votes
19answers
143k views

Is there any reason to use C++ instead of C, Perl, Python, etc.? [closed]

As a Linux (server side) developer, I don't know where and why should I use C++. When I'm going for performance, the first and last choice is C. When "performance" isn't the main issue, programming ...
17
votes
19answers
30k views

Ideal programming language learning sequence? [closed]

What do you think? What is the ideal programming language learning sequence which will cover most of the heavily used languages and paradigms today as well as help to grasp common programming basics, ...
19
votes
5answers
4k views

When does it make sense to compile my own language to C code first?

When designing an own programming language, when does it make sense to write a converter that takes the source code and converts it to C or C++ code so that I can use an existing compiler like gcc to ...
80
votes
11answers
7k views

How can I make sure that I'm actually learning how to program rather than simply learning the details of a language? [closed]

I often hear that a real programmer can easily learn any language within a week. Languages are just tools for getting things done, I'm told. Programming is the ultimate skill that must be learned and ...
55
votes
5answers
7k views

Is there a correlation between the scale of the project and the strictness of the language?

Explaining the difference between strictness of languages and paradigms to a colleague of mine, I ended up asserting that: Tolerant languages, such as dynamic and interpreted languages, are used ...
40
votes
3answers
16k views

How could the first C++ compiler be written in C++?

Stroustrup claims that Cfront, the first C++ compiler, was written in C++ (Stroustrup FAQ). However, how is it even possible that the first C++ compiler be written in C++? The code that makes up the ...
17
votes
9answers
3k views

Why are self-hosting compilers considered a rite of passage for new languages?

I've heard in a number of places now that people expect languages to use, or at least have, a self-hosting compiler in order to deserve respect. I'm curious as to why this is. A compiler seems like a ...
19
votes
5answers
7k views

Interpreted vs Compiled: A useful distinction?

A lot of questions get asked here about interpreted vs compiled language implements. I'm wondering whether the distinction actually makes any sense. (Actually the questions are usually about languages,...
0
votes
2answers
448 views

How to mix different styles of programming on several languages?

I know that Senior Developer doesn't use only one language and only one platform or IDE. Can you advise how to mix different styles of programming to make efficient code? For example, best mixing is ...
74
votes
15answers
32k views

What makes C so popular in the age of OOP? [closed]

I code a lot in both C and C++, but did not expect C to be the second most popular language, slightly behind Java. TIOBE Programming Community Index I'm curious as to why, in this age of OOP, C is ...
65
votes
11answers
25k views

Why is String immutable in Java?

I couldn't understand the reason of it. I always use String class like other developers, but when I modify the value of it, new instance of String created. What might be the reason of immutability ...
19
votes
15answers
3k views

What are bit operators good for? [closed]

Programming languages often come with various bit operators (e.g. bitwise left- and right shift, bitwise AND, OR, XOR...). These don't get used though very much, or at least such has my experience ...
33
votes
7answers
4k views

Is it actually possible to have a 'useful' programming language that isn't Turing complete?

Where it is accepted that a language has to be Turing complete to be any good, is it actually possible to have a 'useful' programming language that isn't Turing complete? I should clarify that this ...
90
votes
17answers
18k views

(Why) Should I learn a new programming language? [closed]

I'm quite proficient with Java, C/C++, JavaScript/jQuery and decently good at Objective-C. I'm quite productive with the languages and their corresponding frameworks too and do produce enterprise ...
30
votes
23answers
8k views

What's a good Programming Metaphor? [closed]

I am referring to explaining to the non-programmer what programming is. I made sure to search for similar questions before creating this one, but the few ones I did find seemed to dodge the question, ...
15
votes
5answers
2k views

What makes JVM so much versatile to support so many JVM languages?

JVM supports so many languages other than Java like Groovy,Clojure,Scala etc which are functional languages unlike Java(I am referring to Java before Version 8 where Lambda's are not supported) that ...
147
votes
24answers
142k views

What are the drawbacks of Python? [closed]

Python seems all the rage these days, and not undeservingly - for it is truly a language with which one almost enjoys being given a new problem to solve. But, as a wise man once said (calling him a ...
49
votes
7answers
101k views

How do I learn Python from zero to web development? [closed]

I am looking into learning Python for web development. Assuming I already have some basic web development experience with Java (JSP/Servlets), I'm already familiar with web design (HTML, CSS, JS), ...
46
votes
11answers
188k views

For what reasons should I choose C# over Java and C++? [closed]

C# seems to be popular these days. I heard that syntactically it is almost the same as Java. Java and C++ have existed for a longer time. For what reasons should I choose C# over Java and C++?
68
votes
17answers
101k views

Is the C programming language still used?

I am a C# programmer, and most of my development is for websites along with a few Windows application. As far as C goes, I haven't used it in a long time, as there was no need to. It came to me as a ...
105
votes
15answers
21k views

Why did memory-managed languages like Java, Javascript, and C# retain the `new` keyword?

The new keyword in languages like Java, Javascript, and C# creates a new instance of a class. This syntax seems to have been inherited from C++, where new is used specifically to allocate a new ...
64
votes
9answers
18k views

At what point can I say I've “learned” a language?

In my few years of programming, I've toyed with everything from Ruby to C++. I've done everything from just learning basic syntax (Ruby) to completing several major (for me) projects that stretched ...
35
votes
7answers
6k views

Functional Programming on the rise?

I have noticed lately that functional programming languages are gaining popularity. I recently noticed how the Tiobe Index shows an increase in their popularity in comparison to the last year although ...
29
votes
8answers
24k views

Learning Multiple Languages Simultaneously [closed]

When learning new languages, is it better to commit yourself to one language 100% and wait until you've "mastered" it to move on to another, or to work on learning different languages at the same time?...
28
votes
5answers
10k views

Is a lambda expression something more than an anonymous inner class with a single method?

There is a new hype with the long awaited lambda expressions in Java 8; every 3 day another article appears with them about how cool they are. As far as I have understood a lambda expression is ...
28
votes
5answers
35k views

Programming Language vs Markup Language vs Scripting Language

Up until now I don't know the KEY differences between these three. When someone asks me about this, I only tell them that C# is a programming language, HTML and XML are Markup Languages, and ...
21
votes
6answers
2k views

How can I say that programming language compiles to other languages?

How can I say in english, that programming language can be compiled to other programming languages? The example can be Haxe. On the website the language is decribed as "Multiplatform": ...
28
votes
7answers
5k views

Why are so many languages passed by value?

Even languages where you have explicit pointer manipulation like C it's always passed by value (you can pass them by reference but that's not the default behavior). What is the benefit of this, why ...
14
votes
6answers
8k views

What technologies are used for Game development now days? [closed]

Whenever I ask a question about game development in an online forum I always get suggestions like learning line drawing algorithms, bit level image manipulation and video decompression etc. However ...
4
votes
6answers
7k views

Why should we use low level languages if a high level one like python can do almost everything? [closed]

I know python is not suitable for things like microcontrolers, make drivers etc, but besides that, you can do everything using python, companys get stuck with speed optimizations for real hard time ...
25
votes
13answers
9k views

Why are objects passed by reference?

A young co-worker who was studying OO has asked me why every object is passed by reference, which is the opposite of primitive types or structs. It is a common characteristic of languages such as Java ...
17
votes
7answers
14k views

Is Java (still) the cross platform language of choice? [closed]

When I started using Java in the nineties, it was all "Write once, run anywhere!" from day one. That was probably all true then and I was a part of the choir as well. I am not sure what to think ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

Is studying more than one programming language as a beginner confusing? [closed]

Intuitively it seems like this might be the case. Is there real research or authoritative anecdotal data (yes, please) supporting (or contradicting) this theory?
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Non-English-based programming languages [closed]

The University of Antioquia in Colombia teaches its introductory programming courses in Lexico, a Spanish-based, object-oriented .NET language. The intent is to teach programming concepts in the ...
11
votes
8answers
13k views

Why does C dominate in the embedded software market? [closed]

Almost everyone will now say the blessing: performance! Okay, C does allow to write athletic code. But there are other languages that can do so, after all! And the optimising power of modern ...
6
votes
3answers
773 views

Is structural typing in a hierarchical model necessary?

This is part of a series of questions which focuses on a project called the Abstraction Project, which aims to abstract the concepts used in language design in the form of a framework. Another ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How is it possible to write the compiler of a programming language with that language itself [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How could the first C++ compiler be written in C++? You probably heard that Microsoft released a new language called TypeScript which is a the typed superset of JavaScript. ...
1
vote
4answers
2k views

Is it bad to learn multiple programming languages? [closed]

I started learning PHP and I was able to get myself familiar with it. Now, I want to explore other programming languages like PERL so that I can compare it myself to PHP. Will I be confused to learn ...
150
votes
6answers
30k views

Is every language written in C?

Sometimes while programming in different languages (C/C++, C#), this thought comes to my mind: Is each and every language written in the C programming language? Is the C language the mother/father ...
58
votes
11answers
13k views

A modern review of Java [closed]

I've been programming for a few years and I began in Java, and in my time I've found many different sources claiming Java to be an inferior language in some way or another. I'm well aware that each ...
100
votes
9answers
16k views

Is there any “real” reason multiple inheritance is hated?

I've always liked the idea of having multiple inheritance supported in a language. Most often though it's intentionally forgone, and the supposed "replacement" is interfaces. Interfaces simply do ...
82
votes
3answers
34k views

Why do programming languages, especially C, use curly braces and not square ones?

The definition of "C-Style language" can practically be simplified down to "uses curly braces ({})." Why do we use that particular character (and why not something more reasonable, like [], which ...
122
votes
13answers
15k views

Why are statements in many programming languages terminated by semicolons?

Is there a reason that a semi-colon was chosen as a line terminator instead of a different symbol? I want to know the history behind this decision, and hope the answers will lead to insights that may ...
38
votes
5answers
46k views

Is Python Interpreted or Compiled?

This is just a wondering I had while reading about interpreted and compiled languages. Ruby is no doubt an interpreted language, since source code is compiled by an interpreter at the point of ...
40
votes
7answers
23k views

What is a “side effect?”

I haven’t clearly understood the concept of side effect. What is side effect in programming? Is it programming language dependent? Is there such a thing as external and internal side effects? ...