Artificial languages for instructing computers to do steps of computation in order to complete tasks. They allow programmers to communicate with computers.

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How do references work in R?

I'm finding R confusing because it has such a different notion of reference than I am used to in languages like C, Java, Javascript... Ruby, Python, C++, well, pretty much any language I have ever ...
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Pre-Compilation Processor:

What I want to do: Parse source code, search for a beginning and closing tag of my own definition (one that does not conflict with any defined patterns in the programming language), and then replace ...
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Interactive help in a statically-typed language with overloading

One of the nice features of IPython is that I can inspect a function. In [1]: def inc(x): ...: """Increments a number""" ...: return x+1 ...: In [2]: inc? Type: function ...
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Best way to handle language interoperability

Background In a language like F#, direct interoperability with most other .NET languages is possible. For example, it is possible to use classes written in C# directly in F#, and it is possible to ...