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14

Intel had 5 pipeline stages in its original Pentium architecture. The number of stages peaked at 31 in the Prescott family, but decreased after that. Today, in the Core series II processors (i3, i5, and i7), there are 14 stages in the processor pipeline. Microarchitecture Pipeline stages P5 (Pentium) 5 P6 (Pentium 3) 10 P6 (Pentium ...


8

You might want to step back and see where and why those existing models come from. When a process is created, it is simply given a flat storage area which is simply indexed from 0 to N. Because this storage area (talking about RAM here) is backed by a dedicated hardware and some fancy semiconductors it happens to be pretty fast, but it's not the only one of ...


5

For integers, the only exponentiation operations that are normally present in hardware are the shifts, << and >> (in C parlance), which multiply by exponential powers of two. For anything else with integers, you run out of bits to represent things far too quickly for it to be useful; by the time you've sorted that problem out, you might as well ...


5

This really all depends on how you are defining a CPU. If you are talking about the embedded CPUs found in many of the devices you use, then yes, they often contain both the RAM and the processing units that would make up a common computer. If you are talking about a CPU that you would find in a consumer desktop/laptop you would see that the cache you are ...


4

there are cache pre-filling strategies. Those I'm aware of are trying to detect (some subset of) linear patterns of memory accesses and when they are successful, they are quite effective (for instance I remember having measured a difference between forward and backward sequential accesses on a processor, difference which was no more present on later ...


3

I haven't seen a pipeline illustrated with a UML sequence diagram yet. I am not saying it is not possible (I think it is) but it would be a lot more complicated and abstract than your FBD which shows the actual architecture of the simplified processor. The main problem I see with the sequence diagram is that all the stages happen in parallel and it could ...


3

Regarding other modern processors: ARM up to 7: 3 stages (still widely used is simpler devices) ARM 8-9: 5 stages; ARM 11: 8 stages; Cortex A7: 8-10 stages; Cortex A8: 13 stages; Cortex A15: 15-25 stages. From Wikipedia.


3

I think you have a case of mistaken diagnosis. Yes, there is a conductivity loss as wires and other elements heat up. However, the relative effect of that loss is insignificant in comparison to other factors. It's more likely that you have file system issues on one or both of the hard drives. If one or both of the drives are at capacity, then the system ...


2

A flat memory model is generally easier for people to understand, because it is possible to construct a simple mapping between addresses and numbers. This makes it possible to mentally model the address space as a large array and addresses as indices into that array. In a segmented memory model, this mental image of the address space only works within a ...


1

Some machines (especially microcontrollers) include hardware to accelerate extended-precision (512+ bits) multiplies, and such hardware will inherently help with exponentiation as well (useful for things like RSA ciphers). Hardware to expedite precise exponentiation (other than by expediting multiplication) is rare because performance with or without such ...


1

The premise "As they heat up they lose conductivity and ultimately slow down." is flawed, and therefore the entire question is flawed. Data transmission over wires doe not cause significant additional resistance in those wires, and heat does not slow down the data transmission rates in the wires.


1

Segmented addresses allow a denser and more efficient use all CPU resources. All those meaningless zeros in a 64 bit address are "unnecessary" and consume resources - data paths must be wider, adders have to have more bits, and memories have to be bigger to hold all the redundant zeros. Back in the stone age that was very important. The PDP-8 (my first ...



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